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"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre aims to present an accurate history as chroniclers of early Australian military developments from 1899 to 1920.

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre site holds over 12,000 entries and is growing daily.

Contact: Australian Light Horse Studies Centre

Let us hear your story: You can tell your story, make a comment or ask for help on our Australian Light Horse Studies Centre Forum called:

Desert Column Forum

WARNING: This site contains: names, information and images of deceased people; and, language which may be considered inappropriate today.

Friday, 21 November 2008
Keep the Home Fires Burning, Part 9 Student Outline
Topic: AAB-Education Centre

 

Education Centre

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre in conjunction with the various Education authorities in Australia, has embarked upon producing a program of instruction targeted initially towards the Later Adolescence band of scholars, characteristically those who are studying in Year 9 and 10 within Australia. Each lesson will be a self contained module. Some will be more difficult than others and graded accordingly.

 

Lesson 9 Keep the Home Fires Burning

Student Outline

 

A silk embroidered postcard sent from a serving man to his sister




Overview

Letters were an important part of maintaining soldier morale. In an age of almost universal Australian literacy letter writing was the main means of economical personal contact. The letters written by the light horsemen form part of Australian history as it affected the family. By use of many unpublished and published letters, the fears and loves of the men at the front comes through. In the end, it gives a positive link to the past as the letter authors become humanised rather than a statistic.

Focus questions

Many of us talk about our family and kin. At the bottom of this page are the definitions of family and kin. When you have read these definitions, think about these questions in relation to your family.

  • What do we mean by the term “kin”?
  • Who is a kin member of your family?
  • Why is the home an important part of understanding our history as Australians?



Introduction

Families

The different types of families occur in a wide variety of settings, and their specific functions and meanings depend largely on their relationship to other social institutions.

The term "nuclear family" is commonly used to refer to a family of adult partners and their children (by birth or adoption) where the family relationship is principally focused inwardly and ties to extended kin are voluntary and based on emotional bonds, rather than strict duties and obligations. This considers the spouses and their children as of prime importance and which has a fringe of comparatively lesser important relatives.

The term "extended family" is also common and it refers to kindred (a network of relatives that extends beyond the domestic group) who do not belong to the nuclear family.

 

  1. What is a family within our community? (Shared goals and ties by cohabitating people usually are defined as families within the community.)
Refer to Family Relationship Chart.
Family Relationship Chart

 

2. When you look at the Family Relationshp Chart, where do fit in with your family? Here the students should be able to describe their immediate family structure and populate it with the names of the various members.



Main activity

When the Light Horsemen enlisted in 1914, they did not realise that they would be away from Australia for so long. During the Boer War, the most time a person spent in South Africa with a particular unit was about a year and then they returned back to Australia. In the Great War, the men who rushed to join thought they might go overseas, fight one or two battles and be home by the end of 1915. The terms of their enlistment, duration plus four months, meant that when the war bogged down, there was no release until it ended. Some Light Horsemen enlisted in August 1914 and were discharged in September 1919, some five years later. There were at least 35 Light Horsemen in this situation although many more came close to serving similar periods.

See: Light Horsemen who enlisted in 1914 and served over 5 years

Light Horsemen who enlisted in 1914 and served over 5 years


Contact with families and friends were most important activities for the soldiers to maintain their moral. While many men were often homesick, a letter was capable of alleviating some of those feelings of loss.

Open the page:

Resource - Letters from 1914 to 1918

Letters from 1914 to 1918 

 

  1. Why do you think families were so important for the continued strength of the Light Horse when the Great War broke out and continued during the war.
  2. Access the 23 individual letters. Select one letter. Your teacher might like you to read it out to the class.
  3. Follow each letter as it is read. At the bottom of each letter are a few things to reflect upon about the particular letter. You might like to begin to reflect over the letter and its contents.
  4. When the letters have been read, examine the letter youu have chosen and answer the reflection questions. Try to put yourself in the place of the person who wrote the letter and also the person who received the letter.
  5. When you have understood the letter, try to write a response to the letter.  Perhaps the response should be about 100-200 words in length. Think about the things the author might like to hear about from their family or friends. If you want to get further inspiration, go to Light Horsemen who enlisted in 1914 and served over 5 years and select a Light Horseman and open the file. Most files contain much material about the things they experienced while in the Light Horse.
  6. After finishing the letter, you might be asked to present it to the class.
  7. What do you think about the information contained in the responding letters? If you were receiving that letter, how would you feel? What motivated these people to write the letters? By writing the letter, did you learn something about yourself as well as the letter writer?
  8. Was your experience different to the students? How? Why?



But how was the mail delivered?

  1. How was it possible for Light Horsemen to mail their letters in the desert?
  2. How did the military Post Office find the right location of each individual Light Horseman while they were constantly moving cross country? See: The Army Post Office delivering the mail
  3. Why was it common for Light Horsemen, when on active service, to note the letters received? [This allowed the men and their families to keep track of the mail sent between each other. If an item went missing, it could be tracked by the Military Post Office.]



Extension

  1. Perhaps you might like to research the full National Archives Service File of a Light Horseman who served over five years. It is now in his fifth year of service. Write a letter as either a relative or the Light Horseman describing experiences and feelings to the recipient.
  2. Why not find out about the current family communication systems available for Australian troops deployed overseas. Compare and contrast that with the systems available to the Light Horsemen in the Great War.  One interesting fact is that the International Postal Agreement was only a decade old for Australia and so cheap international letters were still a novelty.



Word bank

  • AIF
  • Attestation Papers
  • B103
  • Blow
  • Enteric
  • Great War
  • Mena
  • Mizpah
  • Taken on Strength



Definitions

Nuclear family

A type of family made up only of parents and their children.

Kin

1. One's relatives collectively: family, kindred, kinfolk.
2. A person connected to another person by blood or marriage: kinsman, kinswoman, relation, and relative.

 

Resource Material

Family Relationship Chart

The Army Post Office delivering the mail

Letters from 1914 to 1918
Light Horsemen who enlisted in 1914 and served over 5 years 

 

Aid to reading service files

Index to Common B103 Terms 

Light Horse History

Maps

Map of Cairo and Allied Camp locations 

Locations

Heliopolis

Mena

Entertainment for the troops - the movies

History

The History of the Composite Australian Light Horse Regiment

 



Citation: Keep the Home Fires Burning, Part 9 Student Outline


Posted by Project Leader at 1:56 PM EAST
Updated: Friday, 21 November 2008 3:28 PM EAST
Lesson 9 Keep the Home Fires Burning, Lesson Plan
Topic: AAB-Education Centre

Education Centre

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre in conjunction with the various Education authorities in Australia, has embarked upon producing a program of instruction targeted initially towards the Later Adolescence band of scholars, characteristically those who are studying in Year 9 and 10 within Australia. Each lesson will be a self contained module. Some will be more difficult than others and graded accordingly.

 

Lesson 9 Keep the Home Fires Burning

Lesson Plan

Level: Later adolescence – Year 9 and 10


Overview

Letters were an important part of maintaining soldier morale. In an age of almost universal Australian literacy letter writing was the main means of economical personal contact. The letters written by the light horsemen form part of Australian history as it affected the family. By use of many unpublished and published letters, the fears and loves of the men at the front comes through. In the end, it gives a positive link to the past as the letter authors become humanised rather than a statistic.

Outcomes

Students:

  • Understand “kin” and “relation”;
  • Consider the role played by Light Horsemen’s families in Australian history;
  • Understand the importance of the home front during the Great War;
  • Undertake a specific case study of one letter; and,
  • Define specific Light Horse terms.


Focus questions

  • What do we mean by the term “kin”?
  • Who is a kin member?
  • Why is the home an important part of understanding social history in Australia important?



Introduction

Families

The different types of families occur in a wide variety of settings, and their specific functions and meanings depend largely on their relationship to other social institutions.

The term "nuclear family" is commonly used to refer to a family of adult partners and their children (by birth or adoption) where the family relationship is principally focused inwardly and ties to extended kin are voluntary and based on emotional bonds, rather than strict duties and obligations. This considers the spouses and their children as of prime importance and which has a fringe of comparatively lesser important relatives.

The term "extended family" is also common and it refers to kindred (a network of relatives that extends beyond the domestic group) who do not belong to the nuclear family.

 

  1. Initiate discussions by asking students: What is a family within our community? (Shared goals and ties by cohabitating people usually are defined as families within the community.)
Refer to Family Relationship Chart.
Family Relationship Chart

 

2. Where do the students fit in with their families? Here the students should be able to describe their immediate family structure and populate it with the names of the various members.



Main activity

When the Light Horsemen enlisted in 1914, they did not realise that they would be away from Australia for so long. During the Boer War, the most time a person spent in South Africa with a particular unit was about a year and then they returned back to Australia. In the Great War, the men who rushed to join thought they might go overseas, fight one or two battles and be home by the end of 1915. The terms of their enlistment, duration plus four months, meant that when the war bogged down, there was no release until it ended. Some Light Horsemen enlisted in August 1914 and were discharged in September 1919, some five years later. There were at least 35 Light Horsemen in this situation although many more came close to serving similar periods.

See: Light Horsemen who enlisted in 1914 and served over 5 years

Light Horsemen who enlisted in 1914 and served over 5 years


Contact with families and friends were most important activities for the soldiers to maintain their moral. While many men were often homesick, a letter was capable of alleviating some of those feelings of loss.

Open the page:

Resource - Letters from 1914 to 1918

Letters from 1914 to 1918 

 

  1. Discuss the reasons why families were so important for the continued strength of the Light Horse when the Great War broke out and continued during the war.
  2. Access the 23 individual letters. Select each individual student to read out a letter to the class. [Note: Since most of the letters are short, reading the letters out aloud by tasking one student per letter, would consume at maximum, about 10 minutes.] After each letter is read, a reflection question may be asked at the discretion of the teacher. Reflection questions are attached to the bottom of each letter. The focus of this activity is to ensure that the students can empathise with the author and recipient of the letter.
  3. Students self select or are allocated a particular letter from the letters page.
  4. Students examine the letter and answer the reflection questions.
  5. Each student will then attempt to write a response to the letter.  Perhaps the response should be about 100-200 words in length. Students are encouraged to think about the items the author might like to hear about their particular lives. The focus of this activity is a practical application of their empathy. It is of little consequence that they have no historical basis to respond as it is their response at a human level that is important in this exercise.
  6. Each student presents the responding letter to the class.
  7. Discuss the common information and elicit observations.



Debrief

  1. Ask students to describe their experience of researching their family and then putting themselves in the shoes of the letter writers. Ask: What motivated these people to write the letters? By writing the letter, did they learn something about themselves as well as the letter writer?
  2. Did experiences between each student vary? How? Why?



Light Horse context

  1. How was it possible for Light Horsemen to mail their letters in the desert?
  2. How did the military Post Office find the right location of each individual Light Horseman while they were constantly moving cross country? See: The Army Post Office delivering the mail
  3. Why was it common for Light Horsemen, when on active service, to note the letters received? [On occasion, ships bearing the letters would be sunk or poorly addressed. This allowed the men and their families to keep track of the mail sent between each other. If an item went missing, it could be tracked by the Military Post Office.



Extension

  1. Ask students to research the full National Archives Service File of a Light Horseman who served over five years. It is now in his fifth year of service. Write a letter as either a relative or the Light Horseman describing experiences and feelings to the recipient.
  2. Ask students research and report on the family communication systems available now for Australian troops deployed overseas. Compare and contrast that with the systems available to the Light Horsemen in the Great War. [Bear in mind that the International Postal Agreement was only a decade old for Australia and so international letters were still a novelty.]


Web support

The following items are available and recommended to be utilised as student and teacher resources.


Teaching Aids

Lesson Material

Family Relationship Chart

The Army Post Office delivering the mail

Letters from 1914 to 1918
Light Horsemen who enlisted in 1914 and served over 5 years 

 

Aid to reading service files

Index to Common B103 Terms 

Light Horse History

Maps

Map of Cairo and Allied Camp locations 

Locations

Heliopolis

Mena

Entertainment for the troops - the movies

History

 The History of the Composite Australian Light Horse Regiment

 


Word bank

  • AIF
  • Attestation Papers
  • B103
  • Blow
  • Enteric
  • Great War
  • Mena
  • Mizpah
  • Taken on Strength



Definitions

Nuclear family

A type of family made up only of parents and their children.



Kin

1. One's relatives collectively: family, kindred, kinfolk.
2. A person connected to another person by blood or marriage: kinsman, kinswoman, relation, and relative.



Learning outcome principles covered by module for Late Adolescent students:

 21 LA.4. The events, people and movements that shaped the development of Australia (e.g. colonisation and expansion, development of governments, participation in major wars) and the contexts in which events and actions occurred (e.g. social and economic context, motivation and beliefs of individuals).
 
 21 LA.6. Ways in which Australia is presented, nationally and internationally (e.g. stereotypes of Australian people and places).

 21. LA.7. Select and apply geographical tools and processes (e.g. maps, graphs, photographs, flow charts, fieldwork, action research) to gather, interpret and present geographical information on Australia;
 
 21. LA.8: Analyse sources, perspectives, theories and gaps in narrative accounts of Australia and Australians; and,
 
 21. LA.9. Sequence historical events and relevant contextual information to explain and create narrative accounts of Australia and Australians.



Additional Reading:

Education Centre Topic Outline

 


Citation: Lesson 9 Keep the Home Fires Burning, Lesson Plan


Posted by Project Leader at 7:44 AM EAST
Updated: Friday, 21 November 2008 1:05 PM EAST
Colonel Husnu, Yildirim, Page 137
Topic: Tk - Bks - Yildirim

Another entry from the book written by Lieutenant Colonel Hüseyin Hüsnü Emir, called Yildirim. Every day, one page of the book will be posted. This is Page 137.



Colonel Hüsnü, Yildirim, Page 137.

[Click on page for a larger print version.]

 

This chapter deals with Hüsnü observations of the Turkish response to Beersheba on other parts of the battlefield.

 

Further Reading:

List of all Yildirim pages

 


Citation: Colonel Hüsnü, Yildirim, Page 137

Posted by Project Leader at 1:01 AM EAST
Updated: Thursday, 20 November 2008 4:06 PM EAST
9th LHR AIF War Diary, 21 November
Topic: AIF - 3B - 9 LHR

9th LHR, AIF

9th Light Horse Regiment

War Diary, 21 November

Pro Gloria et Honore - For Glory and Honour

Regimental March -  Marching Through Georgia

 

 

The following entries are extracted and transcribed from the 9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary, the originals of which are held by the Australian War Memorial. There are 366 entries on this site. Each day has entries as they occurred from 1914 to 1919. In addition to the 9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary, when appropriate, entries from the 3rd Light Horse Brigade War Diary and other regiments with the Brigade will also appear. Entries from the unit history, Darley, TH, With the Ninth Light Horse in the Great War, Adelaide, Hassell Press, 1924 will also appear from time to time. The aim is to give the broadest context to the story and allow the reader to follow the day to day activities of the regiment. If a relative happened to have served in the regiment during the Great War, then this provides a general framework in which the individual story may be told.

 

The Diary

 

1914

Saturday, November 21, 1914

9th Light Horse Regiment Location -  Morphettville Race Course Camp and Broadmeadows Camp, Victoria. 

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Formation of Regiment occurring at Morphettville Race Course Camp, Adelaide, while "C" Squadron is formed at Broadmeadows Camp, Victoria.

See: Broadmeadows 1909

 

1915

Sunday, November 21, 1915

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Rhododendron Spur

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary -  Detailed three men to report to Officer in Command, Divisional Ammunition Park, Anzac. Second Lieutenant Bryant GH of D Squadron has been detailed as Brigade Bomb Officer.

 

1916

Tuesday, November 21, 1916

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Bir Etmaler

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - McKenzie, Major KA; Phelan, Lieutenant E; and, Sharp, Lieutenant RC and 72 Other Ranks to Anzac Rest Camp, Port Said.

 

1917

Wednesday, November 21, 1917

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - 2,000 yards north west Junction Station.

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - 0800 Information received from Brigade that C Squadron was with Yeomanry Division at Beitunia. 1300 The Brigade moved via Jerusalem Road to El Mejdel arriving there at 1800.

 

1918

Thursday, November 21, 1918

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Mejdelaya, Tripoli

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - All ranks engaged in cleaning saddlery and equipment. Special attention being paid to burnishing of all steel work. One Officer 30 Other Ranks road making.

 

1919

Friday, November 21, 1919

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Adelaide

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Regiment disbanded.

 

 

Previous: 9th LHR AIF War Diary, 20 November

Next: 9th LHR AIF War Diary, 22 November

 

Sources:

See: 9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Contents
Australian Light Horse Studies Centre, AIF War Diaries of the Great War, Site Transcription Policy

 

Further Reading:

9th Light Horse Regiment AIF

Bert Schramm Diary

9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour 

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: 9th LHR AIF War Diary, 21 November

Posted by Project Leader at 1:01 AM EAST
Updated: Sunday, 19 September 2010 10:55 AM EADT
Diaries of AIF Servicemen, Bert Schramm, 21 November 1918
Topic: Diary - Schramm

Diaries of AIF Servicemen

Bert Schramm

21 November 1918

 

Bert Schramm

 

2823 Private Herbert Leslie SCHRAMM, a 22 year old Farmer from Whites River, South Australia. He enlisted on 17 February 1916; and at the conclusion of the war Returned to Australia, 10 July 1919.

During part of the course of his military service with the AIF, Bert Schramm kept a diary of his life. Bert was not a man of letters so this diary was produced with great effort on his behalf. Bert made a promise to his sweetheart, Lucy Solley, that he would do so after he received the blank pocket notebook wherein these entries are found. As a Brigade Scout since September 1918, he took a lead part in the September Offensive by the Allied forces in Palestine. Bert's diary entries are placed alongside those of the 9th Light Horse Regiment to which he belonged and to the 3rd Light Horse Brigade to which the 9th LHR was attached. On this basis we can follow Bert in the context of his formation.

 

The Diaries

The complete diary is now available on the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre Site at:

Bert Schramm Diary


Finding more about a service person. See:

Navigating the National Archives Service File 

 

 

Bert Schramm's Handwritten Diary, 17 - 23 November 1918

[Click on page for a larger print version.]


Bert Schramm

Thursday, November 21, 1918

Bert Schramm's Location - Mejdelaya, Tripoli

Bert Schramm's Diary -  Nothing worth recording. The weather is being pretty fine.

 

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Mejdelaya, Tripoli

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - All ranks engaged in cleaning saddlery and equipment. Special attention being paid to burnishing of all steel work. One Officer 30 Other Ranks road making.

9th LHR AIF War Diary, 21 November

 

Darley

Darley, TH, With the Ninth Light Horse in the Great War, Adelaide, Hassell Press, 1924.

No Entry

 

 

Previous:  Bert Schramm's Diary, 20 November 1918

Next:  Bert Schramm's Diary, 22 November 1918


Sources Used:

Bert Schramm's Diary

National Archives Service File.

Embarkation Roll, AWM8.

Australian War Memorial Roll of Honour

Nominal Roll, AWM133, Nominal Roll of Australian Imperial Force who left Australia for service abroad, 1914-1918 War.

 

War Diaries and Letters

All War Diaries and letters cited on this site should be read in conjunction with the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre, War Diaries and Letters, Site Transcription Policy which may be accessed at:

Australian Light Horse Studies Centre, War Diaries and Letters, Site Transcription Policy 

 

Further Reading:

Bert Schramm Diary

Bert Schramm Diary, Album

Bert Schramm's Photo Album

9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, AIF

9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, War Diary, Day by Day Account

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: Diaries of AIF Servicemen, Bert Schramm, 21 November 1918


Posted by Project Leader at 1:01 AM EAST
Updated: Sunday, 12 June 2011 4:51 PM EADT

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