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"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre aims to present an accurate history as chroniclers of early Australian military developments from 1899 to 1920.

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre site holds over 12,000 entries and is growing daily.

Contact: Australian Light Horse Studies Centre

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Wednesday, 11 March 2009
Merivale Street, Qld, Courier Account 29 March 1919 p7, bolshivism-must-go
Topic: BatzA - Merivale

Merivale Street

Queensland, 24 March 1919

 

The following is a contemporaneous account of the battle at Merivale Street taken from the pages of the Brisbane Courier.  The text from the scan is of poor quality and thus cannot be readily transcribed into text but it is legible enough to allow the contents to be satisfactorily read.

The ongoing Battle of Merivale Street, Queensland, from the account published in the Brisbane Courier, 29 March 1919.

 

[From: Brisbane Courier, 29 March 1919, p. 7, Bolshivism must go.]

 

 

Further Reading:

Merivale Street, Queensland, March 24, 1919

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: Merivale Street, Qld, Courier Account 29 March 1919 p7, bolshivism-must-go

Posted by Project Leader at 11:01 PM EADT
Updated: Monday, 30 March 2009 1:03 PM EADT
605th Machine Gun Company War Diary - 30 May to 1 June 1916
Topic: Gm - Bk - 605 MGC

 German 605th Machine Gun Company (MGC)

War Diary, 30 May to 1 June 1916 

 

605th Machine Gun Company War Diary - 30 May to 1 June 1916

 

 

The entries

 

30.V.16:     

Pte. Runge had fallen sick en route and, as referred to above, was sent to hospital on Turkish diagnosis as a case of "spotted typhus".


31.V.16:     

Our horses and draught oxen arrived here early to-day, whereupon we continued our journey this afternoon to Afoule at 4 p.m. To detached Pte. Krell as ammunition guard.


1.VI .16:  
 

Strength of the company - 1 officer, 9 N.C.O's, 17 men. We reached Samach on Lake Tiberias at 4 a.m. to-day, but only had a 15 minutes halt. After 2½ hours we reached Afoule. Here the railway branches due south. From Afoule station one can see Nazareth lying on the ridge to the north. Tabor mountain is visible to the northeast. West of Afoule station Mount Carmel extends in a northerly direction. We got bread here from the Turkish L. of C. We had a halt here of only 1½ hours. From here we travelled in a southerly direction via DJenin, Tul Karem to Ras-El-Ain. Here the Commandant of the local Turkish supply depot received us. We got lentils and mutton cutlets and afterwards tea. To the N.W. there are still the ruins of the old fortress of Anti Patrie. As the end of our 1½ hour halt approached we had to entrain, and proceeded to Rente station. This station is about 3 kilometers from our German Colony of Wilhelma, where we were received in the warmest fashion in accordance with old customs and ways. The colony invited us to visit the settlement, but unfortunately time did not allow this and we had to rest content with the good German Palestine wine given by the colony. On the whole of our travels we saw no fields so well cultivated as they were here with German industry and labour.

 

 

Previous Page: 605th Machine Gun Company War Diary - 26 to 30 May 1916

Next Page: 605th Machine Gun Company War Diary - 1 to 4 June 1916

 

Further Reading:

German 605th Machine Gun Company (MGC) , Contents 

The Battle of Romani

Light Horse Battles

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: 605th Machine Gun Company War Diary - 30 May to 1 June 1916


Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Wednesday, 15 April 2009 4:17 PM EADT
1st Australian Armoured Car Section - Megiddo - Part 3
Topic: AIF - Cars

 

 

1st AUSTRALIAN ARMOURED CAR SECTION, AIF

THE BATTLE OF MEGIDDO

Part 3

 

This is a transcription from a manuscript submitted by Captain E.H. James called "The Motor Patrol". It is lodged in the AWM as AWM 224 MSS 209. This is Part 3.

 

THE BATTLE OF MEGIDDO - Part 3

We ran the gauntlet for about five miles like this (it seemed like ten) when we came to a spot on the road that was completely blocked by a train of German motor lorries that had been abandoned. Hundreds of natives from an adjoining village were busy looting these vehicles and at first they were too busy to take any notice of us. We got busy clearing a track for our car and had nearly got it through when the natives who were all armed with rifles and knives began to congregate around us. Several of them began to snatch things out of our car such as our haversacks, field glasses etc. By this time we were practically clear and we covered them with our revolvers.

The natives then began to get their rifles ready and to flourish their knives and the prospects looked ugly. Meantime, the driver got his engine going and we grabbed a native boy who was hanging around the car, pulled him in and held him between us and the tribesmen while we did the next mile in record time and not a shot was fired at us. When we were out of range we kicked the boy out. After another two or three miles we arrived at our destination and we were not sorry to see a detachment of Indian Lancers.

We explained to the officer in charge that we had had a fairly eventful drive up and that we did not relish the idea of the trip back again, it was bad enough with two of us coming up with our hands free but to go back encumbered with a wounded man who would be in pain and not able to stand the jolting and bumping if the car was driven at speed was certainly looking for trouble. The officer in charge agreed and arranged to send a few of his lancers along with us until we were past the village that gave us the chief trouble.

We got away as quickly as possible with our charge and the mounted escort who must have been seen coming for when we arrived back at the scene of trouble there was not a man to be seen anywhere and the village was absolutely deserted. We said goodbye to our Indian friends then and did the twelve miles back to Beisan without a shot being fired at us. We arrived just as it was getting dark and handed our charge over to the doctor. We then explained to Headquarters how "clear" the road was on our outward journey. The divisional commander sent messages next morning to all villages along the road that if any more sniping occurred along the route that he would burn all the crops on both sides. This had the desired effect as no more shooting took place by the tribesmen along that route.

Next day the unit received instructions to join the 11th Light Armoured Car Battery and proceed bank to Lejjun where the Desert Mounted corps Headquarters was stationed. We arrived there in the dark end bivouacked for the night. Next day we were to join the 5th Cavalry Division who were making a dash on the town of Haifa which was still in the hands of the enemy. The town was attacked during the afternoon and fell about four o'clock. Shortly afterwards we drove in and took possession. We slept in an olive grove that night and next morning our orders were to proceed south (around Mount Carmal) along the coast and search the villages for enemy and rifles etc. We went through the villages of Athlit and Tantura and although we found none of the enemy left we got large supplies of rifles, 30 cases of ammunition and a bag of bombs which we handed in. We returned to Haifa and slept in our old quarters again.

On the 27th September the Corps pushed on through Nazareth to Tiberias where we stayed for the night, we had considerable difficulty in getting through the mountains near Nazareth. Our aeroplanes the day before had severely bombed an enemy mechanical transport column as it was in the pass and had played havoc with them. The result was that in places the road was blocked by disabled vehicles which we had to push over the side into the valley below in order to get past.

We arrived at Tiberias on the shores of the lake in time for tea and stayed there for the night. The blue waters of the Sea of Galilee looked very refreshing after the dry and dusty journey and most of the men indulged in a bathe at the first opportunity. We also had fresh meat that day which was a welcome change after weeks of Bully.

 

Previous section: 1st Australian Armoured Car Section - Megiddo - Part 2

Next section: 1st Australian Armoured Car Section - Megiddo - Part 4

 

Further Reading:

1st AUSTRALIAN ARMOURED CAR SECTION, AIF, Contents 

Australian Light Horse Order of Battle - Outline 

The Australian Light Horse - Structure

Australian Light Horse Order of Battle

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: 1st Australian Armoured Car Section - Megiddo - Part 3

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Monday, 13 April 2009 11:23 PM EADT
Suez Canal Attack, Egypt, Official British History Account, Pt 2
Topic: BatzS - Suez 1915

Suez Canal Attack

Egypt, January 28 - February 3, 1915

 Official British History Account, Pt 2

 

The following is an extract from:

MacMunn, G., and Falls, C., Military Operations Egypt & Palestine - From the Outbreak of War with Germany to June 1917, London, 1928, pp. 22 -  25.

 

Chapter II

 

THE CANAL DEFENCES.

By December the defence of the Suez Canal had been organized. The force to which it was entrusted consisted of the 10th and 11th Indian Divisions and the Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade. Owing to the demand for British Regular troops in Europe the normal allotment of one British battalion to each brigade had been abandoned and the two divisions were entirely composed of Indian troops. The artillery with these troops-which, it will be recalled, had not been sent from India as divisions-consisted of three mountain batteries only. Two field artillery brigades of the East Lancashire Division and a pack-gun battery of the Egyptian Army were added to the Canal Defences, but it was upon the presence of warships in the Canal, prepared to act as floating batteries, that chief reliance for its artillery defence was placed.

The Canal was divided into three sectors for defence: Suez to the Bitter Lakes; Deversoir, north of the Great Sketch B. Bitter Lake, to El Ferdan; El Ferdan to Port Said. Force headquarters and the general reserve were at Ismailia. Small detachments were employed in guarding the Sweet Water Canal and garrisoning the important supply depot at Zagazig, on the main line between Cairo and Ismailia.

With the exception of its artillery, the troops of the East Lancashire Division were not employed, as Sir J. Maxwell was averse to taking them from their training. That division, however, as well as the Australian and New Zealand contingents, formed a reserve, which could be swiftly railed from Cairo to Ismailia and thence in either direction along the Canal.

The troops in the Canal Defences were equipped with first-line transport only. In January it was decided to form a small Camel Transport Corps to act as second-line transport. Five hundred camels were assembled at Abu Sueir, close to Ismailia. They were divided into eight sections, the native drivers being commanded by British officers, civilians given temporary commissions for this duty. Such was the beginning of a corps of which the numbers were to rise in the next three years to upwards of 25,000 drivers and over 30,000 camels.

The Suez Canal was an obstacle which would have been serious to any army, but was particularly so to one which had to march to its attack dragging artillery and bridging train across a wide sandy desert. Though the distance, as the crow flies, from Port Said to Suez was upwards of one hundred miles, 22 miles were taken up by the great sheet of water known as the Great and Little Bitter Lakes and 7 by Lake Timsah. These lakes formed the natural boundaries of the defensive sectors which have been described, and considerably diminished the frontage against which an attack was practicable. The position was admirably served by a lateral railway; it had water behind it, while for the sustenance of an attacker from the desert in front were only a few brackish wells.

There had therefore never been any question but that a Turkish attack from Palestine should be met and fought upon the line of the Canal. The pre-war scheme of defence, while suggesting that a force of camelry should occupy Nekhl, to harass the enemy and keep touch with Ismailia, had definitely laid it down that "the obvious line of actual defence of the eastern frontier of Egypt is the Suez Canal." That argument was now all the stronger because when it was framed it had not been contemplated that warships would be sent into the Canal or that the Navy would do more than render Egypt immune from a hostile landing at Suez or Port Said and, in the event of aggression from the east, patrol the Canal and the lakes with armed pinnaces. After the decision that, in the event of attack from Sinai, warships should enter the Canal and assist in its defence by gun-fire, the potential strength of the position was greater than ever.

These advantages were sufficient to determine the policy of the defence in the circumstances prevailing, but it was not forgotten that there was another side to the picture. The mere interruption of navigation through the Canal, inevitable in case of an attack, would result in loss of time, serious at a period when troops and supplies were wanted hurriedly and when every extra hour that British shipping was employed on any mission meant the loss of a valuable hour which should have been given to another. Such short interruptions were, however, the least of the dangers to be contemplated. A ship sunk in the Canal was a more serious possibility.

This is perhaps an example of extreme “blue-water" naval theory affecting military plans. It was held that warships could not be spared for the defence of the Canal because the Navy would be wholly occupied in seeking out and destroying the enemy's fleet. The Navy's object proved, however, to be the obtainment and preservation of the command of the sea, and in defending the Suez Canal the older ships of Britain and France were fulfilling their part to that end.

A temporary success to the enemy might permit him to do, in a few days, damage to the Canal which it would take many weeks to repair. Great as were the advantages of the policy of defence upon the line of the Suez Canal, that policy represented, in sum, the employment of the Empire's main line of communication as an obstacle in front of a fire trench.

The defensive work carried out along the Canal was simple by comparison with the elaborate system which was to be constructed in 1916. A series of posts was dug, the trenches revetted with sandbags and protected by barbed wire, on the east bank, principally to cover ferries and provide facilities for local counter-attack, while a more extensive bridgehead was prepared at Ismailia Ferry Post. [These posts were prepared, from north to south, at Port Said, Ras el Esh, Tina, El Kab, Qantara, Ballah, El Ferdan, Bench mark, Ismailia, Tussum, Serapeum, Deversoir, Geneffe, Shallufa, Gurkha Post, El Kubri, Baluchistan Post, Esh Shatt.] On the west bank trenches were dug at intervals between the posts. The Suez Canal Company, which put all its resources, including small craft, at the disposal of General Wilson, rendered great assistance in the construction of works and crossings. The ferries under its administration were put at the service of the defence, and a number of new ones added. Three floating bridges were assembled: the heaviest at Ismailia, and lighter ones at, Kubri, half way between Suez and the Little Bitter Lake, and at Qantara.

In order to narrow, by flooding a portion of the desert, the frontage open to attack, a cutting was made in the Canal bank at Port Said on the 25th November. The plain to the east is here very low, in places below the surface of the Mediterranean, and the resultant inundation reached El Kab, north of Qantara, thus barring 20 miles of the Canal to approach. The water subsided somewhat in January, but left the area which had been covered impassable for some time longer. On the 2nd January a further cutting was made in the Asiatic bank north of Qantara, which resulted in good protection being afforded to the flank of that fortified zone. Minor inundations were created between Qantara and Ismailia.

 

Previous Chapter: Suez Canal Attack, Egypt, NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER 1914, Official British History Account, Pt 1

Next Chapter: Suez Canal Attack, Egypt, SYRIA AND SINAI, Official British History Account, Pt 3

 

Further Reading:

Suez Canal Attack, Egypt, Contents

Where Australians Fought, Sinai, 1916-1917

Light Horse Battles

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: Suez Canal Attack, Egypt, Official British History Account, Pt 2


Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Sunday, 26 April 2009 11:24 PM EADT
North Russian Campaign, 3153 Private Ernest Gaffey
Topic: BatzO - Emptsa

North Russian Campaign

Australian Casualties
 
3153 Private Ernest Gaffey
 
 

3153 Private Ernest Gaffey at Netley in hospital uniform, October 1919.

 

Ernest Gaffey, a brief military biography from The AIF Project:

Regimental number3153
ReligionRoman Catholic
OccupationLabourer
AddressBundarra, New South Wales
Marital statusSingle
Age at embarkation19
Next of kinMother, Mrs Jane Gaffey, Copeton via Inverell, New South Wales
Enlistment date14 September 1916
Rank on enlistmentPrivate
Unit name53rd Battalion, 8th Reinforcement
AWM Embarkation Roll number23/70/4
Embarkation detailsUnit embarked from Sydney, New South Wales, on board HMAT A29 Suevic on 11 November 1916
Rank from Nominal RollPrivate
Unit from Nominal Roll53rd Battalion
Fate

Discharged 6 July 1919

Enlisted as 133035 Private Ernest Gaffey, 45th Royal Fusiliers

Wounded at the Battle of Emptsa, 29 August 1919

Transferred to Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley, 7 October 1919

Other details

War service: Western Front

Date of death28 January 1940
Age at death42
Place of burialAnglican Cemetery, Inverell, New South Wales
 
 
Additional information:
 
Ernest Gaffey was born in Bundarra, N.S.W., 18 February 1898 to Patrick James Gaffey (b. 1860 - d. 1917) and Jane Helen Gaffey (neé Young (b. 1876 - d. 1952?)), the parents being married at Bundarra in 1897. Ernest was the oldest of eight children, the others being Arnold, Harold (b. 1901), Marjorie,  Clifton (b. 1907)Charlie (who had a disability of some kind), Ethel and Reati (who died very young as a result of falling into a fireplace).
 
Patrick Gaffey (the father of Patrick James Gaffey) took up his selection on Saveall Creek in 1871 in the Parish of Bundarra. Patrick James Gaffey (Patrick Gaffey's son and Ernest's Father) supposedly had cut his own throat on his own selection next to his Fathers. 
 
Ernest had signed up with the AIF when he was underage, then aged 17 on 13 November 1915 and was allotted to the 1st Reinforcements for the 33rd Infantry Battalion. He was  discharged at parents request on the 27 March 1916 and taken home by his parents.
 
With the recruitment drive of 1916, Ernest again enlisted at Armidale on 4 September 1916 stating that his parents were deceased. He was allotted to the 8th Reinforcements with the 53rd Infantry Battallion
 
The following year, 1917, Ernest's father, Patrick James, died as a consequence of a supposed suicide.
 
After service on the Western Front in France, at the end of the war, Ernest was discharged at his own request in England. The newly formed Norforce was a British formation and the Australian Government refused to release serving AIF members to participate in the action. So it was agreed that Australian volunteers would be demobilised in England for the express purpose of enlisting with the British Army and more specifically with the 45th Royal Fusiliers.
 
During the Battle of Emptsa, Ernest Gaffey was wounded although it is unknown what form the wounding took or which part of his body sustained the injury. My Father is Norman Gaffey who served in the merchant navy in WW2. He still has in his posession the bullet that was removed from his Father that he received in northern Russia.

Ernest was refused a pension by the Australian government as well as the British government, each saying the other was responsible for his welfare therefore leaving him responsible for himself.
 
Ernest did it tough during the depression and lost his wife and 2 daughters to influenza. He was left broken and penniless and was left with no option but to place his son (my father Norman Gaffey) into an orphanage in Eastwood (Dalmar) the day the Sydney Harbour Bridge was opened. 
 
Ernest Gaffey died from heart failure at age 42 at "Bookoolo" on Bannockburn Road near Inverell N.S.W on 27 January 1940. A Coroner's Inquest was held at Inverell  on 1 February 1940 to establish the circumstances leading up to and causing the death of Ernest Gaffey. It was determined that heart disease, "Mitral Stenosis", was the cause of death. This finding was entered onto his death certificate. Subsequent to the inquest, Ernest Gaffey was buried by the RSL. 

My Father had no idea of his fathers history and had thought he had served in the lighthorse at Galipoli. He actualy served in the 53rd battalion AIF in France and then with the 45th Royal Fusiliers.

Information kindly supplied by Mark Gaffey, the Grandson of Ernest Gaffey.
 
 

3153 Private Ernest Gaffey at Netley in hospital uniform, October 1919.

 

Further Reading:
 
Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920 
 
 

Citation: North Russian Campaign, 3153 Private Ernest Gaffey

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Friday, 8 May 2009 4:21 PM EADT

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