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"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess

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Friday, 8 May 2009
The Battle of Krithia, Gallipoli, 8 May 1915, Turkish Roll of Honour
Topic: Tk - Army

The Battle of Krithia

Gallipoli, 8 May 1915

Turkish Roll of Honour

 

Çanakkale Martyr's Memorial
[Photo by Jll.]

 

The Roll of Honour contains the names of all the men known to have served at Gallipoli and gave their lives in service of the Ottoman Empire during The Battle of Krithia, Gallipoli, 8 May 1915. The names are compiled from the Turkish Book of Martyrs commonly known as Sehitlerimiz

 

Roll of Honour

 

ABDULLAH, also known as “MOLLAMUSA OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of MEHMET, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

ABDURRAHMAN, also known as “KOCA SEFER OĞULLARI”, the son of SEFER, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

AHMET, the son of AHMET, 21st Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 7th Company.

AHMET, the son of ALİ, 16th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 2nd Company.

AHMET, also known as “YAKUP OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of BEKİR, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

AHMET, also known as “HACI OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of HACI HÜSEYİN, 25th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 2nd Company.

AHMET, the son of İBRAHİM, 10th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

AHMET, the son of MEHMET, 71st Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 10th Company.

AHMET, also known as “KÖSE OĞULLARI”, the son of MUSTAFA, Unknown Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

AHMET, the son of NURİ, 17th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

AHMET, also known as “KARABEY OĞULLARI”, the son of OSMAN, 125th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, Unknown Company.

AHMET, the son of SÜLEYMAN, 16th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 2nd Company.

AHMET, the son of YAKUP, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

ALİ, the son of AHMET, 11th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 4th Company.

ALİ, also known as “ALİ ABBAS OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of ALİ MEHMET, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 2nd Company.

ALİ, the son of BEŞE, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

ALİ, the son of DURMUŞ, 14th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 12th Company.

ALİ, also known as “BEŞOĞULLARINDAN”, the son of HALİL, Unknown Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

ALİ, the son of HASAN, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 8th Company.

ALİ, the son of HASAN, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

ALİ, also known as “DELİ AHMET OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of HÜSEYİN, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

ALİ, the son of SÜLEYMAN, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

ARİF, the son of İSMAİL, 25th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 4th Company.

 

BEYTULLAH, the son of ÖMER, 20th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 4th Company.

 

DURMUŞ, also known as “ALİCİK OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of İBRAHİM, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

 

EYÜP, the son of HALİL, 17th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 4th Company.

 

FAHRİ, the son of MAHMUT, 12th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 2nd Company.

FERHAT AĞA, the son of MUSTAFA, 55th Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

FEYZİ, the son of MUSTAFA, 1st Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 9th Company.

 

HALİL, also known as “GÖK HÜSEYİN OĞULLARI”, the son of ALİ, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 8th Company.

HALİL, the son of HALİL, 20th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 9th Company.

HALİL, the son of HASAN, 39th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 8th Company.

HALİL, the son of İBRAHİM, 126th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 4th Company.

HAMDİ, the son of ABDULLAH, 19th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 4th Company.

HASAN, the son of HALİL, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 1st Company.

HASAN, the son of RECEP, 124th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 2nd Company.

HASAN, the son of SELİM, 12th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

HASAN FEHMİ EFENDİ, the son of HÜSEYİN, Unknown Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

HASAN HÜSEYİN, the son of SÜLEYMAN, 17th Regiment, 4th Battalion, Unknown Company.

HÜSEYİN, the son of AHMET, 11th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 5th Company.

HÜSEYİN, the son of KAMİL, 38th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

HÜSEYİN, the son of MEHMET, 10th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 9th Company.

HÜSEYİN, the son of MUSTAFA, 11th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

HÜSEYİN, the son of MUSTAFA, 70th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 5th Company.

İBRAHİM, the son of HÜSEYİN, 3rd Regiment, 1st Battalion, 2nd Company.

İBRAHİM, also known as “NALBANT OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of MEHMET, 47th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 4th Company.

 

İSA, also known as “SARIÖMER OĞULLARI”, the son of MEHMET EMİN, 17th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 9th Company.

İSMAİL, also known as “YUSUF OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of MEHMET, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

 

KASIM, the son of MEHMET, 57th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Company.

KASIM, the son of MEHMET, 57th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Company.

 

MEHMET, also known as “PENBE SANCAKDAR OĞULLARI”, the son of AHMET, Unknown Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

MEHMET, the son of AHMET, 124th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 11th Company.

MEHMET, the son of HACI HASAN, 57th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 11th Company.

MEHMET, also known as “KARASÜLEYMAN OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of HÜSEYİN, Unknown Regiment, 1st Battalion, 17th Company.

MEHMET, the son of HÜSEYİN, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

MEHMET, the son of HÜSEYİN, 11th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 8th Company.

MEHMET, the son of HÜSEYİN, 11th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 8th Company.

MEHMET, the son of HÜSEYİN, 46th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 4th Company.

MEHMET, the son of İBRAHİM, 12th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

MEHMET, the son of İBRAHİM, 18th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 4th Company.

MEHMET, the son of KASIM MUSTAFA, 124th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

MEHMET, also known as “GARİP OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of MAHMUT, 5th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 4th Company.

MEHMET, the son of MAHMUT, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

MEHMET, the son of MEHMET, 10th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 6th Company.

MEHMET, the son of MEHMET, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

MEHMET, the son of MUSTAFA, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 7th Company.

MEHMET, the son of ÖMER, 10th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 12th Company.

MEHMET, the son of YUSUF, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Company.

MEHMET, the son of YUSUF, 124th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

MEHMET ALİ, the son of AHMET, 34th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 1st Company.

MEHMET ALİ, also known as “EMİN EFENDİ OĞULLARI”, the son of HASAN, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 8th Company.

MEHMET ALİ, the son of MEHMET, 25th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 1st Company.

MEHMET BURHAN, the son of HACI HALİL, 16th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, Unknown Company.

MEVLÜT, the son of ABDUL, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 14th Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of ABDULLATİF, 10th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 6th Company.

MUSTAFA, also known as “ARAP OĞULLARI”, the son of AHMET, 126th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

MUSTAFA, also known as “HALİLBEY OĞULLARI”, the son of EMİN, Unknown Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

MUSTAFA, also known as “HALİLBEY OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of EMİN, 16th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, Unknown Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of HASAN, 11th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 10th Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of HASAN, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 5th Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of HÜSEYİN, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 6th Company.

MUSTAFA, also known as “DELİBEKİR OĞULLARI”, the son of İBRAHİM, 19th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of İSMAİL, 20th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of MEHMET, 10th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of MEHMET, 127th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 4th Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of MEHMET ALİ, 10th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 11th Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of VELİ, 126th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 5th Company.

 

NİYAZİ, the son of YUSUF, 11th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

NURİ, the son of EMİN, 17th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

 

ÖMER, the son of İBRAHİM, 20th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 2nd Company.

ÖMER, the son of MEHMET, 10th Regiment, Unknown Battalion, 14th Company.

OSMAN, the son of ALİ, 29th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Company.

OSMAN, the son of MUSTAFA, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

OSMAN, also known as “ÇOMUŞ OĞULLARI”, the son of OSMAN, Unknown Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

 

RAMAZAN, also known as “MEMİŞ”, the son of MEHMET ALİ, 41st Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 6th Company.

RAMAZAN, also known as “SEVAHİLLİ OĞULLARI”, the son of MEHMET ALİ, 41st Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 6th Company.

RASİM, the son of HASAN, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 4th Company.

 

ŞABAN, the son of ALİ, 12th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Company.

SAİM, the son of AHMET, 12th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

SAİT, the son of MUHTAR, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

SALİH EFENDİ, the son of HASAN, 72nd Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 5th Company.

ŞERAFETTİN, the son of ŞABAN, 71st Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

SIDKI, the son of KAMİL, 124th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 5th Company.

SÜLEYMAN, the son of HÜSEYİN, 31st Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 9th Company.

SÜLEYMAN, the son of MEHMET, 34th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 1st Company.

SÜLEYMAN, the son of MEHMET, 34th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Company.

SÜLEYMAN, the son of ÖMER, 14th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 11th Company.

SÜLEYMAN, also known as “OSMAN OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of ŞAMİL, 38th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

 

TALİP, the son of MUSTAFA, 17th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 12th Company.

TURAN, also known as “AĞRIS OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of SAMUR, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

 

YUSUF, also known as “RECEP OĞLU”, the son of ABDULLAH, 12th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

YUSUF, also known as “HATİP OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of MEHMET, 57th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 12th Company.

YUSUF, also known as “KÖR HASAN OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of MUSTAFA, 20th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Company.

 

Lest We Forget

 

 

Further Reading:

Turkish Army 

The Battle of Krithia, Gallipoli, 8 May 1915

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: The Battle of Krithia, Gallipoli, 8 May 1915, Turkish Roll of Honour

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Saturday, 8 May 2010 2:21 PM EADT
Bert Schramm's Diary, 2 May 1919
Topic: Diary - Schramm

Diaries of AIF Servicemen

Bert Schramm

 

During part of the course of his military service with the AIF, 2823 Private Herbert Leslie Schramm, a farmer from White's River, near Tumby Bay on the Eyre Peninsular, kept a diary of his life. Bert was not a man of letters so this diary was produced with great effort on his behalf. Bert made a promise to his sweetheart, Lucy Solley, that he would do so after he received the blank pocket notebook wherein these entries are found. As a Brigade Scout since September 1918, he took a lead part in the September 1918 breakout by the Allied forces in Palestine. Bert's diary entries are placed alongside those of the 9th Light Horse Regiment to which he belonged and to the 3rd Light Horse Brigade to which the 9th LHR was attached. On this basis we can follow Bert in the context of his formation.

 Bert Schramm's Diary, 2 May 1919

 


Bert Schramm's Handwritten Diary, 28 April - 2 May 1919

[Click on page for a larger print version.]

Diaries

Bert Schramm

Friday, May 2, 1919

Bert Schramm's Location - Zagazig, Egypt.

Bert Schramm's Diary - Tod, Lieutenant PA; and, Lawrence, Lieutenant R, with party returned from escorting Turkish prisoners of war to Alexandria. They brought back the original banner of the Regiment which from the time the Regiment embarked for Gallipoli until now has been under the care of Mrs Cornish. [Waterworks Alexandria]

 

 

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Zagazig, Egypt.

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Usual camp routine. Driscoll, Lieutenant LS, evacuated to hospital.

 

Darley

Darley, TH, With the Ninth Light Horse in the Great War, Adelaide, Hassell Press, 1924.

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Further Reading:

9th Light Horse Regiment AIF War Diary - Complete day by day list

Bert Schramm Diary 

Bert Schramm Diary - Complete day by day list

 

Additional Reading:

Darley, TH, With the Ninth Light Horse in the Great War, Adelaide, Hassell Press, 1924.

 


Citation: Bert Schramm's Diary, 2 May 1919


Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Saturday, 9 May 2009 9:19 PM EADT
The Australian Light Horse, Part 3
Topic: Militia - LH

 The Australian Light Horse

Part 3

 

2nd Lancer Draft for South Africa, 17 June 1900.

 

The following is an extract from the book by Hall, RJG, The Australian Ligth Horse, Melbourne 1967, pp. 24 - 28.

 

South African War

The hostilities in South Africa were to have a profound effect upon the emerging military organization in Australia. This was to be her first practical lesson in the military arts. There was no lack of students. Australia sent 16,175 combatants to the theatre with 16,314 horses. Apart from the valuable introduction to the "new warfare", conducted without the pomp and colourful panoply of scarlet uniforms, white accoutrements, polished helmets and geometric formations, the War Office in London realized that the colonies possessed tremendous potential in the provision of soldiery.

By the end of the War in June 1902 Australia had shown not only her capacity to provide willing and enthusiastic soldiers, but already the reputation of her mounted men, their resourcefulness, initiative and courage had left a lasting impression with the more perceptive British leaders.

A young major of the lnniskillians named Allenby commanded a group of NSW Lancers and spoke highly of their operations. He was to speak out again, fifteen years later, in Syria and his opinions of the Australian Light Horse were recorded as follows:

"I knew the New South Wales Lancers and the Australian Horse well in the Boer War and I was glad to meet some of my old friends of those days when the Light Horse came under my command just two years ago. The Australian Light Horseman combines with a splendid physique a restless activity of mind ... on every variety of ground - mountain, plain, desert, swamp or jungle the Australian Light Horseman has proved himself equal to the best. He has earned the gratitude of the Empire and the admiration of the world".

To return to the days prior to the declaration of War, the Australian public demonstrated an acute interest in the preliminary manoeuvring between Britain and the South African States. Three months prior to the outbreak of War, Queensland made an offer of 250 mounted infantry to the British Government. This was followed in turn by Victoria and New South Wales.

When the state of war was proclaimed on 11 Oct 1899, the enthusiasm of the volunteers knew no bounds. In the first eighteen months of the War, 2,900 regular recruited soldiers were dispatched from the various States. In addition, 3,637 "Citizen Bushmen" sailed for South Africa as the result of public subscription and material assistance.

The standards set for the enlistment of men for service in the South African War were published in the press and State gazettes

"Men to be good shots and proficient swordsmen, of superior physique not under 5 foot 6 inches or 34 inches chest; good riders and bushmen, accustomed to find their way about in strange country."

Whether all the conditions were met or proved; the acceptances are shown in the table below.

State Cavalry-Mounted Rifles etc. Contingent  Officers Other Ranks Horses
NSW Lancers (a)      
  1 NSWMR       
  2 NSWMR       
  3 NSWMR      
  1 Australian Horse      
  1 Australian Commonwealth Horse (b) (3 squadrons)      
  5 Australian Commonwealth Horse  
Total NSW    314 5,796 5,872
 
Victoria   
  2 Mounted Rifles (VMR)   
  5 Mounted Rifles (VMR)  
  2 Australian Commonwealth Horse (3 squadrons)  
  4 Australian Commonwealth Horse (2 squadrons)  
  6 Australian Commonwealth Horse (A, B, C and D squadrons VMR)  
Total Victoria    193 3372 3825
 
South Australia   
  1 Mounted Rifles (SAMR)   
  2 Mounted Rifles (SAMR)  
  2 Australian Commonwealth Horse (half squadron)  
  4 Australian Commonwealth Horse (1 squadron)  
  8 Australian Commonwealth Horse (A and C squadrons)  
Total South Australia   89 1,437 1,444
 
Western Australia   
  1 Mounted Infantry (WAMI)   
  2 Mounted Infantry (WAMI   
  4 Mounted Infantry (WAMI)   
  5 Mounted Infantry (WAMI)   
  6 Mounted Infantry (WAMI)  
  2 Australian Commonwealth Horse (half squadron)  
  4 Australian Commonwealth Horse (one squadron)  
  8 Australian Commonwealth Horse (one squadron)  
Total WA    67 1,162 1,183
 
Queensland  
  1 Mounted Infantry (QMI)  
  2 Mounted Infantry (QMI)   
  3 Mounted Infantry (QMI)  
  1 Australian Commonwealth Horse (one squadron)  
  3 Australian Commonwealth Horse (one squadron)  
  7 Australian Commonwealth Horse  
Total Queensland    149 2,739 3,207
 
Tasmania   
  1 Mounted Infantry (TMI)  
  1 Australian Commonwealth Horse (one squadron)  
  3 Australian Commonwealth Horse (one squadron)  
  8 Australian Commonwealth Horse (one squadron)  
Total Tasmania   36 821 783
 
TOTAL    838 15,327 16,314
         


NOTE (a) - A squadron of New South Wales Lancers, having attended tournaments and training in England, arrived at Cape Town on heir return to Australia. With a fine sense of duty and little regard for the legal niceties, the majority of the squadron disembarked for operations, thus becoming the first overseas troops to land in any of the bases of the war.

NOTE (b) - The Australian Commonwealth Horse is not to be confused with the Militia Regiment of Australian Horse (1897). The Commonwealth Horse was raised as the first mounted unit of the newly named Commonwealth of Australia. It is of interest to note that the First Australian Commonwealth Horse battalion displayed for the first time the Australian General Service Badge (Rising Sun).

As the result of the contribution to the South African War by the various States of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Battle Honour SOUTH AFRICA was authorized in Military Order 123/1908. The award was made in such a way that any future regiments of:

New South Wales Lancers,
New South Wales Mounted Rifles, Victorian Mounted Rifles,
Queensland Mounted Rifles,
South Australian Mounted Rifles,
Western Australian Mounted Infantry,
Tasmanian Mounted Infantry, and
Australian Horse.


could all bear the Distinction held on their behalf by the above regiments.

As far as the Commonwealth Forces in general and the Light Horse in particular, were concerned, the South African War provided the militia with a large number of officers and NCO's with battle experience. Units were to lean heavily upon this experience for a number of years until war again called Australians to fight upon foreign soil.
 


Previous: The Australian Light Horse, Part 2

Next: The Australian Light Horse, Part 4

 

Further Reading:

The Australian Light Horse

 


Citation: The Australian Light Horse, Part 3

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Friday, 15 May 2009 9:42 AM EADT
Volunteer stages
Topic: AAA Volunteers

Voluntary Work Stages

Australian Light Horse Studies Centre

 


 

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The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre is a not for profit and non profit group whose sole aim is to write the early history of the Australian Light Horse from 1900 - 1920. It is privately funded and the information is provided by the individuals within the group and while permission for the use of the material has been given for this site for these items by various donors, the residual and actual copyright for these items, should there be any, resides exclusively with the donors. The information on this site is freely available for private research use only and if used as such, should be appropriately acknowledged. To assist in this process, each item has a citation attached at the bottom for referencing purposes. 

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Head your email with the word: "Volunteer"

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Further Reading:

Volunteer Support

Volunteering with the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre 

Volunteering with the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre, Contents 

 


Citation: Volunteer stages


Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Sunday, 10 May 2009 11:33 AM EADT
Thursday, 7 May 2009
The Australian Light Horse, Part 4
Topic: Militia - LH

 The Australian Light Horse

Part 4

 

Light Horsemen, 1914.

 

The following is an extract from the book by Hall, RJG, The Australian Ligth Horse, Melbourne 1967, pp. 29 - 32.

 

Federation to 1914

The new Commonwealth Government's reaction to her defence responsibilities was to organize the former State forces into a number of brigades on a territorial basis.

The Light horse brigades in 1905 were as follows:

1 LH Brigade - NSW
2 LH Brigade - NSW
3 LH Brigade - Victoria
4 LH Brigade - Victoria
5 LH Brigade - Queensland
SA Brigade - South Australia
WA Brigade - Western Australia


This represented 18 Light Horse regiments (see Appendix 6) covering districts from Townsville in the North (15ALH) to Warrnambool in the South (11 ALH ) and Perth in the West (18ALH).

Additional regiments were added to the ALH order of battle as follows:

1905 - Total of 18 regiments
1910 - Total of 19 regiments
1914 - Total of 23 regiments


To date, frequent use has been made of the term Lancer, Light Morse, Mounted Rifles, Mounted Infantry and Cavalry. The correctness of title prior to 1901 is open to question in some cases. However, a noticeable contribution to Australian Military Forces written doctrine was published under the title of The Mounted Service Manual for Australian Light Horse and Mounted Infantry on 1 July 1902 and authorized by Major General E. T. H. Hutton, Commanding Military Forces of the Commonwealth of Australia. In the preface to the Manual, General Hutton indicates the direction to be taken be Mounted units in regard to tactical operations and defines the nature of the mounted units to be found in the Australian Order of Battle.

Regardless of the territorial titles, then in limited use and soon to become a general feature of the units, Mounted Troops were divided into two categories:

(a) Horsemen, trained to fight on foot, e.g.-Light Horse.
(b) Infantry soldiers temporarily provided with increased powers of locomotion, e.g.- Mounted Infantry.


In further detail the Manual describes the roles of these units as follows:

“Light Horse are required to:

(a) Fight on foot both in the offensive and defensive;

(b) To perform the duties classed under "Information", viz. reconnoitring and screening, and;

(c) Afford "protection" from surprise for all bodies of troops both halted and on the march.


Mounted Infantry are required to perform only the duties pertaining to infantry, who are temporarily provided with increased means of mobility".

Reference to the "Marching or Service Order-Field Kit" (see Table 1 to this chapter) shows that the Australian mounted units were in fact of the former category, i.e. Light Horse.

Table 2 shows the organization of the regiment. This organization, with minor amendments, was to prevail until 1940.

The question of compulsory part time training occupied the early parliament during the period 1902-1908. The results of such arduous labour was the birth of the first Defence Bill of 1908. Before being made law, Mr. Deakin went out of office and his successor, Mr. Andrew Fisher, introduced a more strenuous bill, then the returning akin finally introduced legislation late in 1909. It provided for Compulsory training as a part time commitment.

Junior cadets - 12-14 years

Senior cadets - 14-18 years

Citizen forces - 18-20 years


Before this Bill began to operate, Lord Kitchener, at the invitation of the Commonwealth Government, made an inspection of Australian defences. Recommending that the forces be brought up to 80,000, he also suggested that compulsory training of the Citizen Forces be extended to the trainee's 25th year.

These recommendations were incorporated into the bill and further drastic changes took place. The militia men, not covered by the 18-25 year compulsory citizen force training, were permitted to complete their current 3 year engagement, but were not permitted to re-enlist. Officers and NCO's were the exception.

It can be seen that despite the increase in Light Horse Regiments, the majority of other ranks in the 23 regiments would be in their 19th or 20th year. The implications of this are discussed in the next chapter. The importance, however, of having 23 regiments on the home forces order of battle lay in the increasing association of the mounted soldier with the civil community.

The Mounted Service Manual again had a great deal to say on this subject and the parade card of the 4th Australian Light Horse in 1910 devoted three pages to quoting the relevant provisions.

"Each troop should be composed of men raised in the same locality, or, if detachments from existing corps, of men belonging to the same regiment or battalion. The permanent sections similarly should be made up by men who live in the same vicinity in civil life, or who will have some association in common.

It will be found that the permanent section or comrade system, if carefully and intelligently adhered to in principle no less than in letter, will produce the highest form of discipline. Men will naturally fight better and with more confidence among those whom they know and trust rather than among strangers".


Such principles lent themselves ideally to the rural distribution of the troop centres. Regardless of how often the number of the regiment changed or the number of "linkings" they experienced, the territorial title identified the soldier with his district.

Seymour, Victoria, so familiar to soldiers of all arms and service for a number of years, first saw a mounted rifle troop in 188 (Seymour Mounted Rifles). Later the Seymour Troop was to appear with 7 ALH, Victorian Mounted Rifles (1905), 15 LH Victorian Mounted Rifles (1912), 14 LH (1919) and 20 LH (1935).

No less familiar to today's recruits is Wagga-Wagga (NSW), which raised its own light horse in 1885 and continued to have representation in 12 LH and 12/24 LH until 1940.

Many of the territorial titles were derived from unit names of pre-federation days. For example in South Australia, the 18 LH Adelaide Lancers called upon the early formation of the Lancers in 1892. Others adopted "State" titles, as with Queensland Mounted lnfantry and Western Australian Mounted Infantry. The "district" titles such as Hunter River Lancers, Northern River Lancers remained for over 50 years.

Within regiments, squadrons and troops became known by their territorial title and as such were recorded upon the many cavalry trophies available in pre 1939 days.

By 1913 all the light horse regiments had adopted their territorial titles.

A notable feature of the period 1902-1914 was the confusion in the numerical identification of the regiments brought about by the redistribution of brigades under the military district system. Brigades were changed as follows:

Old Designation - New Designation - State
5 LH Bde - 1 LH Bde - Qld
1 LH Bde - 2 LH Bde - NSW
2 LH Bde - 3 LH Bde - NSW
3 LH Bde - 5 LH Bde - Vic
4 LH Bde - 7 LH Bde - Vic
SA Bde - 8 LH Bde - SA
WA Bde - 12 Mixed Bde - WA
Tas Bde - 13 Mixed Bde - Tas


Within the brigades, the regiments changed numbers to such an ;tent that the territorial titles provide the only means of locating the line of descent.

Examination of Appendix 6, 7 and 8 will show the considerable expansion and redistribution of unit areas, particularly in the districts from which the divisional cavalry regiments were raised. The total strength of the light horse in 1914 appeared formidable with approximately 9,000, all ranks.

 

Previous: The Australian Light Horse, Part 3

Next: The Australian Light Horse, Part 5

 

Further Reading:

The Australian Light Horse

 


Citation: The Australian Light Horse, Part 4

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Friday, 15 May 2009 10:18 AM EADT

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The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre is a not for profit and non profit group whose sole aim is to write the early history of the Australian Light Horse from 1900 - 1920. It is privately funded and the information is provided by the individuals within the group and while permission for the use of the material has been given for this site for these items by various donors, the residual and actual copyright for these items, should there be any, resides exclusively with the donors. The information on this site is freely available for private research use only and if used as such, should be appropriately acknowledged. To assist in this process, each item has a citation attached at the bottom for referencing purposes.

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