"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess
The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre aims to present an accurate history as chroniclers of early Australian military developments from 1899 to 1920.
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Saturday, 13 June 2009
Australian Light Horse, Myths and Legends Topic: Gen - Legends
Australian Light Horse
Myths and Legends
Over the many years, powerful myths and legends regarding the light horse and the behaviour of the men has become prevalent. This has occurred due to a number of reasons. Perhaps a relative has exaggerated their role for one or another reason. This is the main reason. Following on behind is someone who has misheard or misread some information which found its way into the Official History and thus become a piece of orthodoxy. Jingoism, Spite, prejudice and covering an embarrassment usually plays its part too. The end result is a distorted picture of history. This section aims to correct some of those mistakes.
This Table is based on the "War Establishments of the Australian Military Forces, 1912." Provision is made for an Armourer as a Staff Sergeant of the Regiment. No other "Attached" Officers, N.C.O.'s, or Men have been provided for. This latter personnel should come to the Regiment fully equipped.
"All Ranks" does not include Officers unless specially mentioned.
Bars, carrying Maxim gun on tripod
Belts, ammunition, Maxim, .303-in., 250 rounds
Includes 2 spare per gun
Cases, Maxim, .303-in., gun
Chests, Maxim, .303-in., machine, filling belts, No. 1, Mark III.
Plugs, cork, complete (spare)
Guns, Maxim, .303-in. (complete, with filled spare part box)
Locks, cover (spare)
Guns, Maxim, .303 in. and .303-in. converted
Muzzle attachments for ball firing
Hoods, protecting, and Marks II. and IV. tripod gun mounts
Machines, filling belts, Maxim, .303 in., Mark II.
Mountings, tripod, .303-in., Maxim gun, Mark IV.
Plugs, belt, Maxim
Reflectors, mirror, M.G., .303-in.
Springs, belt filling, machine, .303-in Maxim
STORES FOR MOUNTINGS, TRIPOD, .303-IN., MAXIM GUN.
1 per mounting
Heads, 4½ lbs.
1 per mounting
Helves, 36-in., ferruled
1 per mounting
1 per mounting
Cans, lubricating, No. 9
2 per mounting, 1 for paraffin oil, and 1 for lubricating oil
Boxes, belt, ammunition, Maxim, No. 2 or 3
14 per mounting
2 per mounting, 1 for lubricating oil, and 1 for turpentine
Cans, .303-in., tripod mountings
1 per mounting. To hold cans carried on offside of packsaddle
1 per mounting
1 per mounting
Linen, old, sheeting (for cleaning small arms and machine guns) lbs.
Gallipoli Campaign - 1915, Questions to the Turkish General Staff, Part 8 Topic: BatzG - Gallipoli
Gallipoli Campaign - 1915
Questions to the Turkish General Staff, Part 8
The Turkish General Staff Answers
During 1919, after the defeat of Turkey, a unique opportunity was opened up for CEW Bean to question the members of the Turkish General Staff about the Gallipoli Campaign. Bean presented a list of 111 questions. In June 1919, he received the answers. In the following transcription, the answers given by the Turkish General Staff will be qualified by the questions asked by Bean.
Questions 9 - 10
9. On April 25th what were the forces against the British at Cape Helles?
10. Where, and in what numbers, were their reserves?
Two regiments of the 9th Infantry Division formed the Garrison at Helles. Their line extended from Gaba Tepe to Monto.
Questions 18, 20, and 21.
18. What reserves were sent to CAPE HELLES and what was the strength of these reserves?
20. What was the Turkish artillery at ARI BURNU on April 25th? How many land guns and ships guns were used, respectively?
21. How many guns were put in afterwards at ARI BURNU?
Reserves were at first sent to Helles from the 7th Division which was at Gallipoli. Afterwards the battalions from the 11th and 3rd Divisions from the Asiatic side. Our guns on the 25th April were the field and the Mountain guns forming the divisional Artillery. Divisions as they reinforced brought their divisional Artillery into the line. There were no other artillery reinforcements.
Questions 28 & 32.
28. When did they realise that the British attack at Helles had been checked?
32. What was their estimate of the result of our attack which took place during the 6th, 7th, and 8th May?
The Turkish General Staff considered that the British attack at Helles was broken by the middle of June, but even after this date there were other attacks in this front.
At first attacks were made every four or five days, later every fortnight. It was considered that the object of these attacks was to break through on the Krithia Side. The last real attack was made 23 days after the June attack.
33. What troops were holding the Turkish front during this attack?
The troops used in defence were:
1st & 2nd Battalion, 29th Regiment.
2nd Battalion, 56th Regiment.
2nd Battalion, 19th Regiment.
1st & 4th Battalion, 26th Regiment.
2nd Corps, 15th Regiment.
34. How effective was the attack towards KRITHIA on May 8th?
The advance against Krithia on May 8th was checked by the fire of the front line troops.
35. What regiments were there in front of KRITHIA and what batteries opened on the troops advancing to that attack?
Opposite Krithia there were the:
2nd Battalion, 5th Regiment.
1st Battalion, 20th Regiment.
2nd Battalion, 56th Regiment.
According to the disposition of the Turkish Troops at Care Helles on May 9th, 1915, there were 7 Q.F. Field Batteries - 1 12 centimetres Howitzer Battery of six guns, but it is not known how many batteries actually took part in the fighting.
36. Why was there no counter attack?
There was no counter attack as the casualties had been heavy and there was insufficient strength to make one.
66. What numbers of Turkish troops were at HELLES at this date (August 6th.) and how many at SUVLA (Turkish ANAFARTA)? Total?
On August 6th there were:
4 Infantry Battalions and 11 guns at Suvla.
At Cape Helles there were
1st Division 9 Battalions 8 machine guns.
4th Division 12 Battalions 8 machine guns.
8th Division 9 Battalions 6 machine guns.
10th Division 9 Battalions 8 machine guns.
11th Division 9 Battalions 3 machine guns.
13th Division 12 Battalions 4 machine guns.
14th Division 12 Battalions 8 machine guns.
The Artillery consisted of 163 guns and howitzers of various calibres.
80. What was the strength of the Turkish force at ANZAC, SUVLA (ANAFARTA) and HELLES, respectively on August 10th?
Order Of Battle of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, April 1916, Part 9, 11th Division Topic: AIF & MEF & EEF
Order Of Battle of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, April 1916
Part 9, 11th Division
As part of the Official British War History of the Great War, Captain Cyril Falls and Lieutenant General George MacMunn were commissioned to produce a commentary on the Sinai, Palestine and Syrian operations that took place. In 1928, their finished work, Military Operations, Egypt and Palestine - From the outbreak of war with Germany to June 1917, was published in London. Their book included Appendix 2 which specifically detailed the Order Of Battle of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, April 1916 and is extracted below.
MacMunn, G. & Falls, C., Military operations: Egypt and Palestine, (London 1930), p. 387:
Major-General E. A. Fanshawe, C.B.
G.S.O. 1 -
Captain (temp. Lieut.-Colonel) J. F. S. D. Coleridge.
Colonel (temp. Brig.-General) G. S. Duffus.
Major (temp. Lieut.-Colonel) F. A. K,White.
32nd Infantry Brigade.
Brevet Lieut.-Colonel (temp. Brig. General) T. H. F. Price.
Citation: Order Of Battle of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, April 1917, Part 9, Imperial Mounted Division Topic: AIF & MEF & EEF
Order Of Battle of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, April 1917
Part 9, Imperial Mounted Division
As part of the Official British War History of the Great War, Captain Cyril Falls and Lieutenant General George MacMunn were commissioned to produce a commentary on the Sinai, Palestine and Syrian operations that took place. In 1928, their finished work, Military Operations, Egypt and Palestine - From the outbreak of war with Germany to June 1917, was published in London. Their book included Appendix 3 which specifically detailed the Order Of Battle of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, April 1917 and is extracted below.
MacMunn, G. & Falls, C., Military operations: Egypt and Palestine, (London 1930), pp. 401 - 402:
Imperial Mounted Division.
Colonel (temp. Major General) H. W. Hodgson, C.V.O., C.B.
G.S.O. 1 -
Major (temp. Lieut.-Colonel) H. C. S. Ward.
Lieut. Colonel the Marques of Exeter.
3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade.
Colonel (temp. Brig. General) J. R. Royston, C.M.G., D.S.O.
8th Regiment Light Horse;
9th Regiment Light Horse;
10th Regiment Light Horse;
3rd Australian Light Horse Signal Troop;
3rd Australian Machine-Gun Squadron.
4th Australian Light Horse Brigade.
Lieut. Colonel (temp. Brig.-General) J. B. Meredith, D.S.O.
4th Regiment Light Horse;
11th Regiment Light Horse;
12th Regiment Light Horse;
4th Australian Light Horse Signal Troop;
4th Australian Machine-Gun Squadron.
5th Mounted Brigade.
Colonel (temp. Brig. General) E. A.Wiggin, D.S.O.
1/lst Warwick Yeomanry;
1/1st Gloucester Yeomanry;
1/lst Worcester Yeomanry;
5th Mounted Brigade Signal Troop;
16th Machine Gun Squadron.
6th Mounted Brigade.
Lieut. Colonel (temp. Brig.-General) T. M. S. Pitt.
1/1st Bucks Yeomanry;
1/1st Berks Yeomanry;
1/1st Dorset Yeomanry;
6th Mounted Brigade Signal Troop;
17th Machine Gun Squadron.
1/1st Notts and 1/1st Berks Batteries, R.H.A.
"A" and "B" Batteries, H.A.C.
Mounted Divisional Ammunition Column.
Imperial Mounted Division Field Squadron.
Signal Service -
Imperial Mounted Division Signal Squadron.
Medical Units -
3rd Light Horse, 4th Light Horse;
1/1st S. Midland Mounted Brigade and 1/2nd S. Midland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulances.
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