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"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre aims to present an accurate history as chroniclers of early Australian military developments from 1899 to 1920.

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Friday, 9 October 2009
2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade, Outline
Topic: AIF - 2B - 2 LHB

2nd LH Bde, AIF

2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade

Outline

 

2nd Light Horse Brigade Colour Patch

 

Formed in September 1914 as part of the 2nd Contingent and attached to the Australian Division, the 2nd Light Horse Brigade was made up of Light Horsemen from two different states. The Regiments included:

 



5th Australian Light Horse Regiment

This Regiment was recruited exclusively Queensland.

 



6th Australian Light Horse Regiment

This Regiment was recruited exclusively from New South Wales. 

The use of a wallaby fur puggaree gave the unit a distinctive appearance.

 



7th Australian Light Horse Regiment

This was projected to be a composite Regiment recruited from three states, New South Wales, South Australia and Western Australia.  The Squadron split was scheduled to be as follows:

"A" Squadron recruited from New South Wales.

"B" Squadron recruited from South Australia from where the commander, Lieutenant Colonel Miell was appointed.

"C" Squadron recruited from Western Australia.

However the volume of recruits meant that "B" Squadron was enlarged to the 9th Light Horse Regiment and "C" Squadron was enlarged to 10th Light Horse Regiment. Consequently the 7th Light Horse Regiment became an exclusively New South Wales unit.

 





2nd Signal Troop

The 2nd Signal Troop was created on 1 April 1916 by drafting in four signallers from each of the 12 Regiments at the Suez Canal. In addition 16 men from the Wireless troop were drafted into the 2nd Signal Troop.

 



2nd Light Horse Field Ambulance

The core 2nd Light Horse Field Ambulance was formed in Brisbane with a contingent from from Gympie.

 

 

 

2nd Light Horse Brigade Train

The 2nd Light Horse Brigade Train was primarily recruited around Brisbane and trained at Enoggera. After Gallipoli, this unit underwent some name changes from 2nd Supply Section in February 1916 to 34th Australian Army Service Corps Company in February 1917.

 



7th Mobile Veterinary Section

After the formation of the Anzac Mounted Division, the three individual Regimental Veterinary sections were brigaded to form the 7th Mobile Veterinanry Section.

 



2nd Light Horse Machine Gun Squadron

In July 1916, all Regimental Machine Gun Sections were to be excised and brigaded to form a Machine Gun Squadron. The 5th, 6th and 7th Machine Gun Sections were combined to form the 2nd Machine Gun Squadron under the command of the Brigade.

 

 

 

Artillery

Artillery support was provided for the 2nd Light Horse Brigade from British batteries. The first British battery attached to the Brigade was the 3rd (Territorial Force) Horse Artillery Brigade, Somerset Battery. This battery remained until the re-organisation of February 1918 when the Somerset Battery was replaced by the British 18th Royal Horse Artillery Brigade, Inverness  Battery

 

2nd Light Horse Training Regiment

Formed in Egypt during March 1916, this unit trained incoming reinforcements while allowing the wounded and sick a place to recover before returning to active service. The Training Regiment contained three squadrons, each duplicating the Regiments within the Brigade to whom it supplied the reinforcements. The Training Regiment was disbanded in July 1918 to be replaced by the Anzac Light Horse Training Regiment when recruits were no longer tied to a Regiment but placed in a general pool of reinforcements called the General Service Reinforcements.

 

2nd Light Horse Double Squadron

Formed Egypt 6 July 1916 from 2nd Light Horse Brigade reinforcements. It was officered and administered by the 2nd Light Horse Brigade. This Double Squadron was broken up in November 1916 with the men being transferred to the newly formed Imperial Camel Corps Battalions.

 

Embarkation

The Brigade embarked to Egypt during the months of October and November 1914. In Egypt additional training occurred at the Maadi Camp.

See: Troop transport ships for information and photographs about the various ships employed in transporting the troops to Egypt.

 

Colour Patch

To assist with identification of the various units within the AIF, Divisional Order No 81 (A) Administration was issued at Mena on 8 March 1915 detailing the Colour Patch for the 2nd Light Horse Brigade as others received their colours. The colour patch was made of cloth 1¼ inches wide and 2¾ inches long and worn on the sleeve one inch below the shoulder seam. The colour patch for the 2nd Light Horse Brigade was plain red.

2nd Light Horse Brigade Colour Patch

The individual units attached to the 2nd Light Horse Brigade carried the white colour as a lower triangular part of the colour patch, the unit itself having their colour on the top. This is illustrated with the above description about each individual unit.

 

Commanders

Brigadier General Granville De Laure Ryrie,  17 September 1914 to March 1919

 

Attachments

Formed Australia September 1914.

Attached to the New Zealand and Australian Division from December 1914 to April 1915. Attachment ceased on the Division's deployment to Gallipoli.

Attached to the New Zealand and Australian Division at Gallipoli from May 1915 to February 1916.

Attached to the Anzac Mounted Division March 1916 until March 1919.

 

Campaigns

Egypt:

  • Defence of Egypt

Gallipoli:

  • Defence of Anzac; and, 
  • Withdrawal from Anzac.

Sinai:

Palestine:

  • First Battle of Gaza;
  • Second Battle of Gaza;
  • Third Battle of Gaza;
  • Beersheba;
  • Jerusalem;
  • Jericho;
  • Es Salt;
  • Megiddo; and,
  • Amman 


Disbandment

The Brigade returned to Australia in July 1919. As each Regiment arrived in the specific home port, they were disbanded.

 

Further Reading:

2nd Light Horse Brigade, AIF 

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade, Outline

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Thursday, 14 January 2010 7:23 AM EAST
2nd Australian Light Horse Regiment, AIF, Outline
Topic: AIF - 1B - 2 LHR

2nd LHR, AIF

2nd Australian Light Horse Regiment

Outline

 

2nd Light Horse Lines on visiting day

[From: The Queenslander,  12 September 1914, p. 21.]

 

Formation

The 2nd Light Horse Regiment was formed as part of the 1st Light Horse Brigade, 1st Contingent and attached to the Australian Division at Enoggera Training Camp to the west of Brisbane, Queensland, on 18 August 1914. The recruits were drawn from the four main Militia Regiments within the 1st Military District which incorporated all of Queensland, Darwin and Northern New South Wales. The men from New South Wales found themselves mainly in "C" Squadron. Many of the men went from the Light Horse Militia formation into the AIF Light Horse.

 

"A" Squadron recruited mainly from:

2nd Light Horse Regiment (50 men).

 

"B" Squadron recruited mainly from:

3rd Light Horse Regiment (34 men)

 

"C" Squadron recruited mainly from:

4th Light Horse Regiment (64 men); and,

27th Light Horse Regiment (30 men).

 

Training 

 

2nd Light Horse Regiment Routine Order No 1, 26 August 1914

[Click on page for larger version.]

 

Training of the 2nd Light Horse Regiment occurred at Enoggera Training Camp from August until September 1914. 

 

Embarkation

Embarkation of the 2nd Light Horse Regiment occurred by the HMAT A15 Star Of England from Pinkenbar Wharf in Brisbane, Queensland, on 24 September 1914. 

 

 HMAT A15 Star of England at Pinkenbar, Queensland, September 1914

 [See: His Majesty's Australian Transports [HMAT] Ships, A15.]

 

The 2nd Light Horse Regiment sailed by convoy from Albany and passed by the action against the Emden at the Cocos Islands. The Star of England disembarked the 2nd Light Horse Regiment in Egypt on 9 December 1914.

 

 

Colour Patch

Initially, the only colour separation of the various Australian mounted troops was by use of the pennant. The marker pennants were carried on poles to mark lines troop lines in camps in Egypt. They were not lance pennants as the Australian lancers had red over white pennants on their lances.

 


Pennant of the 2nd Light Horse Regiment

 

While this pennant was useful in distinguishing horse and troop lines, it failed to identify the individual with a unit. The AIF 1st Australian Division Standing Orders issued in December 1914 ordered the Australian Light Horse Regiments to wear a 4 inch wide [10.2cm] blue armband with the regiment name marked on the band in black lettering.

The earlier systems proved to be ineffective so to assist with identification of the men in the various units within the AIF, Divisional Order No 81 (A) Administration was issued at Mena on 8 March 1915 detailing the Colour Patch for the 2nd Light Horse Regiment as others received their colours. The colour patch was made of cloth 1¼ inches wide and 2¾ inches long and worn on the sleeve one inch below the shoulder seam. The colour patch for the 2nd Light Horse Regiment was green over white.

 

2nd Light Horse Regiment Colour Patch

 

The 2nd Light Horse Regiment carried the white Brigade colour as the lower triangle part of the colour patch, while the green unit colour was on the top. This is illustrated with the above presentation.

 

Gallipoli

As mounted troops, the Light Horse was considered to be unsuitable for work in Gallipoli. The mounted troops volunteered to operate as infantry and thus were sent to Gallipoli with the 2nd Light Horse Regiment landing on 12 May 1915. Only once was this regiment used for offensive activities which occurred on the morning of 7 August 1915 with an attack on a Turkish position opposite Quinns Post. The tragedy was reduced when the assault was abandoned. The 2nd Light Horse Regiment was withdrawn from the front line in September and left the peninsula on 18 December 1915.

 

Western Frontier Force

After the return to Egypt, the 2nd Light Horse Regiment reformed and re-equipped. The reorganisation of the Light Horse led to the formation of the ANZAC Mounted Division to which the 2nd Light Horse Regiment became a foundation member.

For the first five months of 1916, between January and May, the 2nd Light Horse Regiment was deployed throughout the Nile valley to defend the Egyptian economic centres from the interruption by the Senussi infiltrating from Siwa Oasis. 

 

Defence of Egypt

On 14 May1916, the 2nd Light Horse Regiment moved to join its parent brigade, the 1st Light Horse Brigade, which was taking part in the defence of the Suez Canal. The work was hot and monotonous. they remained here until moved to the Romani region to bolster the defence of that area.

 

Sinai

The 1st Light Horse Brigade played an important role in beating back the Turkish invasion of the Suez Canal zone at Romani. Now known as the Battle of Romani which lasted from 4-6 August which was quickly followed by the Battle of Katia and then Bir el Abd on 9 August. All the actions in which the 2nd Light Horse Regiment finally led to the defeat of the Ottoman Canal Expeditionary force and its retreat to Bir el Mazar.


Over the next few months, the 2nd Light Horse Regiment took part in the Allied advance over the Sinai leading to the fall of Bir el Mazar, then El Arish followed by Bir el Magdhaba and finally Rafa in January 1917. The Ottoman forces were expelled from the Sinai and were poised to be tackled in Palestine.

 

Palestine

The 2nd Light Horse Regiment was assigned to protect the rail line and lines of communications for the first months of 1917. They missed the First Battle of Gaza but were back at the fron by 6 April 1917 and took part in the Second Battle of Gaza on 19 April 1917.

The 2nd Light Horse Regiment took part in the Battle of Beersheba and then the follow up actions that lasted until early January 1918. This included such actions as the advance to Jaffa.

After the fall of Jerusalem the 2nd Light Horse Regiment moved to the Jordan Valley and took parts in operations in this region. This included the taking of Jericho, the attack on Amman during 27 March - 2 April 1918 and Es Salt Raid of 30 April – 4 May 1918. It's last major action prior to the breakout was to repel the German Asien Corps attack on Abu Telllul, 14 July 1918.


Amman

At the opening of the final Allied offensive on 19 September 1918, the 2nd Light Horse Regiment took part in the invasion of the Moab hills for the third time. This time Amman was captured and finally, the Ottomans called for an Armistice on 30 October 1918.

 

Return to Australia

After the conclusion of hostilities, the 2nd Light Horse Regiment was marked to return to Australia. Prior to that action, one of the saddest actions occurred for the Australian Lighthorsemen, they had to farewell their best friends, the horses. All the Light Horse unit horses's health was ascertained with the fit horses being transferred to the Indian Cavalry while those in poor condition were destroyed by the Veterinary units. On 13 March 1919 the 2nd Light Horse Regiment embarked from Egypt for the long voyage to Australia where the unit was disbanded. 


Commanding Officers

Lieutenant Colonel Robert Mackay Stodart
Lieutenant Colonel Thomas William (Bill) Glasgow
Lieutenant Colonel Sydney William Barlow
Lieutenant Colonel George Herbert Bourne

 

 Decorations earned by the 2nd Light Horse Regiment

  • 1 CMG - Companion in The Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George
  • 8 DSO - Distinguished Service Orders
  • 10 MC - Military Crosses
  • 6 DCM - Distinguished Conduct Medals
  • 15 MM- Military Medals
  • 1 MSM - Meritorious Service Medal
  • 34 MID - Mentioned in Despatches
  • 3 foreign awards 

 

Campaigns

Gallipoli

  • Anzac
  • Defence at Anzac
  • Suvla
  • Sari Bair
  • Gallipoli 1915-1916

Egypt

  • Senussi Campaign
  • Defence of Egypt

Sinai

  • Romani
  • Magdhaba
  • Rafa 

Palestine

  • Second Battle of Gaza
  • Third Battle of Gaza
  • Beersheba
  • El Mughar
  • Nebi Samwill
  • Jerusalem
  • Jaffa
  • Jericho
  • Amman
  • Es Salt
  • Abu Tellul
  • Megiddo
  • Nablus
  • Palestine 1917-1918

 

Casualties suffered by the 2nd Light Horse Regiment

  • 203 killed
  • 472 wounded


War Diary

The Australian War Memorial has put these on line and may be accessed here:

2nd Light Horse Regiment War Diaries.

 

Embarkations:

The following list details all the embarkations in support of the 2nd Light Horse Regiment, AIF, during the Great War. Each entry details the individual soldier's: rank on embarkation; full name; Declared age; last occupation held; last address as a civilian; enlistment Date; and, ultimate fate. Each man is linked to a brief military biography where ever possible. One interesting point is that many of the men listed in the embarkation roll for the 2nd Light Horse Regiment ended up in a different unit altogether. This list details the men's starting point in the AIF.

2nd Light Horse Regiment, Headquarters

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A15 Star Of England 24 September 1914

2nd Light Horse Regiment, A Squadron

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A15 Star Of England 24 September 1914

2nd Light Horse Regiment, B Squadron

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A15 Star Of England 24 September 1914

2nd Light Horse Regiment, C Squadron

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A15 Star Of England 24 September 1914

2nd Light Horse Regiment, Machine Gun Section

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A15 Star Of England 24 September 1914

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 1st Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A42 Boorara 20 December 1914

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 2nd Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A53 Itria 9 February 1915

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 3rd Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A53 Itria 9 February 1915

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 4th Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A15 Star Of England 8 April 1915

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 5th Reinforcement

Newcastle, New South Wales on board HMAT A57 Malakuta 22 May 1915

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 6th Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A7 Medic 2 June 1915

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 7th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A9 Shropshire 20 August 1915

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 8th Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A55 Kyarra 16 August 1915

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 9th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A33 Ayrshire 1 September 1915

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 10th Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A69 Warilda 5 October 1915

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 11th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A47 Mashobra 4 October 1915

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 12th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A23 Suffolk 30 November 1915

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 13th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A36 Boonah 22 January 1916

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 14th Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A62 Wandilla 31 January 1916

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 15th Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A73 Commonwealth 28 March 1916

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 16th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A16 Star Of Victoria 31 March 1916

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 17th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A10 Karroo 5 May 1916

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 18th Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A49 Seang Choon 4 May 1916

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 19th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board RMS Mongolia 8 July 1916

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 20th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board RMS Malwa 22 July 1916

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 21st Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board RMS Mooltan 19 August 1916

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 22nd Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A43 Barunga 26 October 1916

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 23rd Reinforcement

Melbourne, Victoria on board HMAT A42 Boorara 10 May 1917

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 24th Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A1 Hymettus 3 February 1917

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 25th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board RMS Karmala 3 February 1917

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 26th Reinforcement

Melbourne, Victoria on board HMAT A42 Boorara 10 May 1917

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 27th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A15 Port Sydney 9 May 1917

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 28th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A15 Port Sydney 9 May 1917

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 29th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A55 Kyarra 3 September 1917

2nd Light Horse Regiment, 30th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A38 Ulysses 19 December 1917

See: Troop transport ships for information and photographs about the various ships employed in transporting the troops to Egypt.

 

Books:

Bourne, GH, "Nulli Secundus" - The History - of the 2nd Light Horse Regiment Australian Imperial Force - August 1914 - April 1919, Melbourne 1926.

Needham-Walker, DR, Biography of the 2nd Australian Light Horse Regiment, A.I.F, Brisbane 1926.

Scrymgeour, JTS, Echoes of the Australian Light Horse in Egypt and Palestine, 1917-1918,  Warwick 1918.

 

Further Reading:

2nd Australian Light Horse Regiment, AIF

2nd Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: 2nd Australian Light Horse Regiment, AIF, Outline

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Tuesday, 22 December 2009 8:14 PM EAST
3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment, Contents
Topic: AIF - 1B - 3 LHR

3rd LHR, AIF

3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment

Contents



3rd Light Horse Regiment Colour Patch

 

The 3rd Light Horse Regiment was composite regiment formed as part of the 1st Light Horse Brigade, 1st Contingent and attached to the Australian Division. Two squadrons were formed at Morphettville Race Track Training Camp to the west of Adelaide, South Australia, while the third squadron was raised at Brighton Camp, north west from Hobart in Tasmania.

 

Structure

The Australian Light Horse – Structural outline

Australian Light Horse Order of Battle

 

Corps

Desert Mounted Corps (DMC)

 

Division

Anzac Mounted Division

 

Brigade

1st Australian Light Horse Brigade 

 

Regiment

3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment, AIF, History

 

History

Romani

Romani, Sinai, 4-5 August 1916, 3rd LHR, AIF, War Diary Account
Romani, Sinai, 4-5 August 1916, 3rd LHR, AIF, Unit History Account
Bir el Abd
Bir el Abd, Sinai, 9 August 1916, 3rd LHR, AIF, War Diary Account
Bir el Abd, Sinai, 9 August 1916, 3rd LHR, AIF, Unit History Account 
Bir el Mazar
Bir el Mazar, Sinai, 17 September 1916, 3rd LHR, AIF, War Diary Account 
Bir el Mazar, Sinai, 17 September 1916, 3rd LHR, AIF, Unit History Account
Magdhaba
3rd ALHR, AIF, War Diary, account
3rd ALHR AIF account 

Beersheba

3rd ALHR AIF account about the fall of Beersheba

3rd ALHR, AIF, War Diary, account about the fall of Beersheba

 

Routine Orders

3rd LHR Routine Order No 138, 14 June 1915

 

Embarkation

Full Roll

Roll: A - C

Roll: D - F

Roll: G - J

Roll: K - L

Roll: M - Q

Roll: R - S

Roll: T - Z

 

Individual Rolls

Regimental Headquarters Section

A Squadron

B Squadron

C Squadron

Machine Gun Section

1st Reinforcement

2nd Reinforcement

3rd Reinforcement

4th Reinforcement

5th Reinforcement

6th Reinforcement Borda Group

6th Reinforcement Wandilla Group

7th Reinforcement Kanowna Group

7th Reinforcement Persia Group

8th Reinforcement Morea Group

8th Reinforcement Kyarra Group

9th Reinforcement Star Of England Group

9th Reinforcement Makarini Group

10th Reinforcement Ballarat 9 September 1915 Group

10th Reinforcement Ballarat 14 September 1915 Group

11th Reinforcement Benalla Group

11th Reinforcement Ulysses Group

11th Reinforcement Hawkes Bay Group

12th Reinforcement Ceramic Group

12th Reinforcement Geelong Group

13th Reinforcement Afric Group

13th Reinforcement Borda Group

14th Reinforcement

15th Reinforcement

16th Reinforcement

17th Reinforcement

18th Reinforcement
19th Reinforcement

20th Reinforcement

21st Reinforcement

22nd Reinforcement

23rd Reinforcement

24th Reinforcement

25th Reinforcement

26th Reinforcement Morea 20 February 1917 Group

26th Reinforcement Morea 22 February 1917 Group

27th Reinforcement

28th Reinforcement Port Lincoln Group

28th Reinforcement Kyarra Group

28th Reinforcement Commonwealth Group

29th Reinforcement Port Lincoln Group

29th Reinforcement Kyarra Group

29th Reinforcement Commonwealth Group

30th Reinforcement

31st Reinforcement Commonwealth Group

31st Reinforcement Ormonde Group

32nd Reinforcement

33rd Reinforcement

34th Reinforcement

35th Reinforcement 

 

Roll of Honour

3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour

Lest we forget


Further Reading:

3rd Light Horse Regiment, AIF

3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour 

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: 3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment, Contents

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Wednesday, 20 January 2010 12:45 PM EAST
7th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Contents
Topic: AIF - 2B - 7 LHR

7th LHR, AIF

7th Australian Light Horse Regiment

Contents

 

7th Light Horse Regiment Colour Patch

 

The 7th Light Horse Regiment was formed as part of the 2nd Light Horse Brigade, 2nd Contingent and attached to the Australian Division. The 7th Light Horse Regiment was drawn from throughout New South Wales.

 

Structure

The Australian Light Horse – Structural outline

Australian Light Horse Order of Battle

 

Corps

Desert Mounted Corps (DMC)

 

Division

Anzac Mounted Division

 

Brigade

2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade

 

Regiment

7th Australian Light Horse Regiment

 

History

Romani

Battle of Romani, Sinai, August 4 to 5, 1916, 7th LHR, AIF, War Diary Account 
Battle of Romani, Sinai, August 4 to 5, 1916, 7th LHR, AIF, Unit History Account
Bir el Abd
Bir el Abd, Sinai, 9 August 1916, 7th LHR, AIF, War Diary Account 
Bir el Abd, Sinai, 9 August 1916, 7th LHR, AIF, Unit History Account 
Bir el Mazar
Bir el Mazar, Sinai, 17 September 1916, 7th LHR, AIF, War Diary Account
Bir el Mazar, Sinai, 17 September 1916, 7th LHR, AIF, Unit History Account

Beersheba

7th LHR, AIF account about the fall of Beersheba

7th ALHR, AIF, War Diary, account about the fall of Beersheba

 

Gallipoli 1918

7th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Return to Gallipoli, 1918

 

Routine Orders

7th LHR RO 18, 29 October 1914, p. 1

7th LHR Routine Order No 156, 17 June 1916

 

Embarkation

Full Roll

Roll: A - C

Roll: D - F

Roll: G - J

Roll: K - L

Roll: M - Q

Roll: R - S

Roll: T - Z

 

Individual Rolls

Regimental Headquarters Section

"A" Squadron

"B" Squadron

"C" Squadron

Machine Gun Section

1st Reinforcement

2nd Reinforcement

3rd Reinforcement

4th Reinforcement

5th Reinforcement

6th Reinforcement

7th Reinforcement

8th Reinforcement

9th Reinforcement

10th Reinforcement

11th Reinforcement Euripides Group

11th Reinforcement Hawkes Bay Group

12th Reinforcement Hawkes Bay Group 

12th Reinforcement Persic Group

13th Reinforcement

14th Reinforcement

15th Reinforcement

16th Reinforcement

17th Reinforcement

18th Reinforcement

19th Reinforcement

20th Reinforcement

21st Reinforcement

22nd Reinforcement Clan Mcewen Group 

22nd Reinforcement Katuna Group

23rd Reinforcement

24th Reinforcement

25th Reinforcement

26th Reinforcement

27th Reinforcement

28th Reinforcement Port Lincoln Group

28th Reinforcement Kyarra Group 

29th Reinforcement

30th Reinforcement

31st Reinforcement

32nd Reinforcement

33rd Reinforcement

34th Reinforcement

35th Reinforcement 

 

Personnel

3782 Trooper Victor Lionel Kearns, aka John Thomas Kerr, 7th LHR

 

Roll of Honour

7th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour 

Lest we forget

 

Further Reading:

7th Australian Light Horse Regiment, AIF

7th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour 

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: 7th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Contents

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Sunday, 7 February 2010 1:12 PM EAST
The Australian Mounted Rifles, Militia Outline, An essay by Ivan, 1885
Topic: AIF - Lighthorse

The Australian Mounted Rifles

Militia Outline

An essay by Ivan, 1885

 

After the Scratchley Report, the various Australian colonies searched for an economical method of providing a system of defence which addressed the problem of low population densities and wide spaces. By the mid 1880's, Victoria was going through the public debate on the direction of defence spending. One contribution was the following essay, published in the Argus, Saturday,  28 March 1885, p. 4, dealt with the conceptual issues surrounding the need for a mounted force.

 
MOUNTED RIFLES.

Ivan

For a community which wants to make the most of the men and money disposable, one of the first questions is - "What kind of drill, formation, and regimental organisation best suits the modern conditions of war time?'' Mounted infantry or mounted rifles are simply infantry men or riflemen who can get quickly from place to place. There might possibly be some prejudice against the mounted infantryman, as distantly suggesting the idea of a "horse marine," but it would not be shared by those who have looked into the matter. This kind of corps is being incorporated more anti more into modem armies. Where the supply of men is not unlimited, training mounted infantry is more "thrifty" than training separate battalions of foot and regiments of cavalry, and it is a question for us colonists whether we ought not to choose the more workmanlike in preference to the showy system of organisation. True, that is not the sole consideration, because "looks” count for something - outward appearance and military display have a good deal of moral effect on parade, at a field day, or when soldiers march through the streets. A corps which has too rough and ready an appearance might make soldiering contemptible. It would have a depressing effect on the military ardour of our citizens to see 1,000 men turn out for a review in Albert Park as gaunt, ragged, and kiln dried as Wilson’s men were when they marched fighting all the wars from Metemueh to Goubat. If we could see the very men who made that march, we would forget what they looked like, thinking of what they had done, but soldiers who have still to earn their laurels must look as impressive as possible. A smart battalion of infantry, marching past in open column of companies, or wheeling and countermarching in close column, stepping well together and making the ground tremble as they go, is an imposing sight, and battalion movements have, of course, then place in warfare; but that is not the only point. After admiring our battalion we must remember that, m our case, they do not represent, as a Prussian battalion does, a fraction of an army corps, which is complete in every separate branch. We Victorians have rather to ask ourselves what use our 1,000 men would be to the officer commanding a field force on an actual campaign - how would he be obliged to dispose of them so as to make the most of his resources '

If our infantry have to do any campaigning, it won t be like the "full dress" performances winch take place on the great battle fields of Europe, it will, more probably, be like campaigning in South Africa, or in the United States during the "late unpleasantness" between North and South. The South African colonists have, unfortunately, had to dabble in warfare of one kind or another for the last 10 years, some "Caffre” or other war with hostile native tribes cropping up periodically. Hence they have plenty of experience of the best organisation for small bodies of men in a country where transport is always difficult and expensive. The latter conditions exist in Australia, and in other respects the problem is the same here as in the Cape. It is true that the Victorian defence force is recruited more from the class of men who are to be found in the German “Landwehr”, but if we colonists ever took in hand to organise a special force, we could not take a better pattern than some of the Cape corps. Even if the infantry battalions of our defence force be intended mainly for garrison duty, training a portion of them to act as mounted infantry would in no way unfit them to serve behind works or defend forts.

The best known among the Cape corps was the old "Cape Mounted Riflemen". Originally the troopers were Hottentots and half castes, but after a while it was composed entirely of white men, and became one of Her Majesty's regiments, although never serving out of Africa. The refusal of the Cape Government to contribute to the cost of keeping up this corps led to its disbandment a few years ago - the troopers being mostly transferred to serve out the remainder of their time in line regiments. The colonial authorities next made the experiment of a corps of mounted policemen, paid, armed, and equipped by the colony. This hybrid corps was anything but a success, and the disastrous result of an encounter with the insurgent Galekas at Guadana Hill, in 1877, allowed that without a strictly military force operations of this kind ought not to be attempted. From the men and officers who had composed the Cape Mounted Police a corps of "Cape Mounted Rifles" was formed in 1877, and it owed the efficiency which it afterwards attained to the exertions of two of its commanders, Frederick Carrington, an ex-officer of the 24th, who was afterwards mortally wounded at Proleka ridge, and Colonel James Baillie. The latter managed, with the Cape Mounted Riflemen alone, to capture Molrosi’s Mountain in 1879, after several unsuccessful attempts to storm it had been made by other detachments The fame of this corps has spread all over South Africa. It seems to be a model of what such a force ought to be.

The secret of its success as a fighting machine was the wonderful quickness of the men in advancing and retiring (mounted) in skirmishing order, and the perfect coolness with which, after a while, they would mount and dismount close to an enemy The great point about a corps of this kind is that it can accustom itself to work as a rule without support or assistance from the other "arms”, or from the transport service. The men themselves are always a pretty "mixed” lot. There were, of course, some Boers among them in the early days, and in addition, representatives of most known nationalities, colours, and classes serve in its ranks

It will be well to describe their clothing, arms, accoutrements, etc. The full dress uniform is a black "cord” patrol jacket and riding "breeches” (not trousers), this material can be dyed any colour required, and it is almost indestructible. Leather leggings - wide at the foot, and without straps or buckles - to be pulled on before the boots. The latter are regulation "ammunition boots," the leggings are kept close down on the boot by the straps of the "hunting” spurs. White helmets.

The arms of this corps consist of (1) a Martini Henry carbine, slung across the back. Some of the Cape mounted corps which have since been raised sling the carbine in a "bucket” attached to the saddle. There is a difference of opinion on this point, the Prussian authorities declaring that slinging the rifle across the back ultimately injures the lungs; on the other hand, it insures that if the man be thrown and his horse gets away he will have his weapon with him. The other weapons are (2) an "Adams' revolver and (3) cavalry sabre. Whether this latter is or is not the proper arm for mounted infantry has, however, aroused plenty of controversy.

The ammunition is carried in a "bandolier," or cross belt, furnished with tubes to hold cartridges. The revolver holster is also worn at the right side of the body, not attached to the front of the saddle, as the fashion once was. The saddles are comfortable and well padded, and have "Cape girths " A valise is carried in front, saddle bags behind Military bridle (bit and burdoon), headstall and hide rope for picketing. Also a knee band, 18in long, which is buckled to the near foreleg above the knee and on to the headstall, when the horse is "hobbled” or turned loose to graze at night. "Patrol” mess tin and cup fitting into each other, and done up in a leather case, constitute all the cooking apparatus required. Half a patrol tent and the telescopic poles for the same are carried on the valise in front of the saddle.

Whenever a troop or squadron becomes altogether independent of vehicular transport, many extras are carried by the men, such as a short axe in leather case, which can bestowed alongside the valise, entrenching picks, shovels, etc. A detached troop can easily carry six days' rations on their horses, quite independently of cattle, which, as a rule, are driven with the main column und slaughtered in camp.

W hen the men bivouac for the night, the horses are either "rung," i.e., fastened together - sometimes in a circle, sometimes in line - by the short hide ropes, from cheek to cheek; or, if there be plenty of grass, they are " hobbled" and turned out to graze all night, with a strong guard over them. On service, the "Cape Mounted Rifles" were accustomed to dismount so many men for infantry movements that six or eight horses generally had to be held by one man. Of course, rapidity in mounting and dismounting can only be attained by long practice, and the horses require a lot of training to get them used to so much knocking about.

The Cape Mounted Rifles were undoubtedly somewhat of a "crack " corps. During the Zulu war bodies of mounted infantry were organised by Lonsdale, Redvers Buller, Lumley, and others, on a more rough and ready footing. But the idea was always the same, that they should get about rapidly, carrying their own rations and equipment, and be able to throw themselves into a position where infantry movements were effective, holding it until the other arms and main body of the force could support them.

The experience pained from Caffre, Zulu, and other wars has been utilised in organising the force now under Sir Charles Warren's command in South Africa. Colonel Methuen has two regiments of Mounted Rifles. The Royal Scots Regiment has a mounted company, and Knox's Regiment of "Pioneers," which has been raised in Cape Town, has one mounted also; the main point being to get hold of men who are good shots. Methuen constantly exercises his men while in camp at skirmishing on foot, firing at trees, rocks, etc.

It may be said here that even in the organisation of these South African corps which were never meant for show, but always for work - there has been some clinging to antiquated notions in the teeth of modern experience. There seems to be a rooted military prejudice in favour of arming mounted men with a sabre, in spite of the fact that the conditions of fighting on horseback have altogether changed in modern times. Prussian military authorities declare that wherever lancers were opposed to dragoons or hussars during the Franco-Prussian war, the lancers no matter whether French or Prussian - had the best of it The only French cavalry that the English soldiers in the Peninsula did not care to tackle were the Polish Lancers, and at Albuera these same lancers fell upon the flank of Colborne's Brigade, and nearly destroyed them. Hussars were able to do very little execution during the first operations under Graham near Suakin, and I see they have sent lancer regiments mostly this time. It is true that during the Tel el Kebir campaign the Household Cavalry managed to sabre a good many of tho Egyptians and Mr. Joseph Cowen, in the House of Commons, related the story of a Newcastle man belonging to the Life Guards, who, at Kassasain, cut off the head of an Egyptian artilleryman with one blow, and became a far greater hero in Newcastle than Mr. Cowen himself. But the Life Guards are the best swordsmen in the British army perhaps the best in Europe now-a-days. They are constantly practising in London, for show and amusement, and carry oft the prizes as a rule at the military tournaments. In ordinary hands the cavalry sabre will not do much execution, especially as nine men out of ten will use it to hack and not to thrust with. During the Franco-Prussian war, out of 60,000 killed and wounded on the Prussian side only six men were killed and 212 wounded by sabre cuts. It is obvious that the reach of a cavalry man's sword arm is very limited, and when cavalry are going fast it is easy to "dodge" the blow. A lance seems to be a far more formidable weapon. It requires a lot of drill, however, to make men experts in lance exercise. Lord Chelmsford proposes to do away with the sabre for mounted infantry, and give them a long bayonet, which when fixed to the carbine could be used on horseback to thrust with, lance fashion. It is quite possible that a bad lancer would be really more effective than a good swordsman. The time when regiments of dragoons met for combat and conventional cut and thrust business on horseback is past and gone. The style in which the Prussian infantry at Reichshofen, although in no particular formation, let French cuirassiers pass through and through them, and then turned and shot them at leisure, shows that men armed with breechloaders have very little to fear from men armed with sabres The Cape Mounted Rifles at close quarters generally trusted to their revolvers. It is to be feared that the utility of our picturesque sword exercise ís also vanishing. The Prussians, now a days, laugh at our right side and left side, and wrist and leg cuts, believing that a cut at the head is the only one worth thinking about.

It will of course, be necessary to abandon old ruts and grooves, and to go to a great deal of extra trouble if we organise corps of mounted infantry, or a mounted company for each battalion of our defence force. There is nothing more comfortable than jogging along at company and battalion drill year after year. If there be no musketry instruction either, that state of things would constitute a sort of adjutant's paradise. But what would happen if our defence force ever had to take the field? The officer in command would simply be compelled to organise a force of mounted infantry on the spur of the moment. I repeat that if we had an efficient cavalry force here the case might be different. But we have not, and ought to remember that it takes an enormous amount of drill to make a smart cavalry soldier, and that he is a very costly individual. With infantry and artillery alone, a contingent would be helpless in the field.

As throwing light on this question, Colonel Malleson, in his Histony of The Indian Mutiny, Vol II, p 187, describes what a few mounted infantry men were able to effect. A field force without cavalry had been operating with little success against the Jaydispore mutineers in the autumn of 1858. At last it occurred to Sir Henry Havelock to get a few men from the 10th Foot and mount them for special service. The idea was very much opposed at first, but he ultimately was allowed his own way. Colonel Malleson says:-

"The staff officer, who was no other than Sir Henry Havelock, deputy assistant adjutant general of the force, in his experience of Franks’s advance without cavalry from the southern frontier of Oude to Lucknow, noticed the enormous service which a few mounted soldiers of the 10th Foot, carrying rifles on horseback, had been able to render. Conceiving the idea … that the services of a few men might be advantageously utilised in a similar manner, he had caused 40 riflemen of the 10th Foot to be hastily trained by Captain Bartholomew, of that regiment. He now … received permission to employ the men he trained as mounted infantry - that is to say, who could pursue and overtake the enemy, then dismounting, hold them in check till the main body should arrive. He increased the 40 men to 60."

Havelock then undertook the pursuit of the mutineers, and thanks to his mounted infantry alone, he succeeded in overtaking and destroying one body of them. " Without the presence of the mounted riflemen," says Malleson, "the enemy would, as on every previous occasion, have escaped unscathed." In pursuing the main body of the Shahabad rebels the infantry column, under Brigadier Douglas, was "guided by the reports from these same mounted riflemen," and Malleson sums up:- "Thus 60 men, organised on a novel plan, and aided by a handful of cavalry, had effected, with almost nominal loss, in five days, what 3,000 regular troops had for six months failed to accomplish, viz., the complete expulsion of 4,500 rebels from the province, and the infliction on them of a punishment the effect of which has not been effaced to this day. "

This is certainly a striking testimony to the utility of mounted infantry. It is well to recollect that mounted companies would cost us here a great deal less money than regular cavalry. There is another great advantage connected with them, which has already struck one of the officers connected with our defence force, that each troop, and even each Squad, is a complete corps in itself, independent of army service corps, camp equipage, stores, i.e. Every township that could muster a dozen young fellows willing to learn to mount and dismount quickly, stick on a horse some fashion or other, practise a few simple cavalry movements in single rank, look after their own horses, cook and pitch tents, might thus have its own corps. They could be united at any time into a regiment, and would not have much that was novel to learn. Of course, it must always he kept in mind that shooting is the businesss of such a corps, not charging on horseback. A good shot, even though he be a bad rider, is worth three good riders who can't hit a target or a mark. I mentioned before the great stress that Methuen and such men in South Africa lay on accurate shooting. And they have good reason - as every-one knows. The Boers owed their success in the Transvaal business simply to their rifle shooting. They had no artillery - and they had no bayonets! It was a miserable business altogether, but we ought to take a lesson from it. Fortunately for our people in the Soudan, the Mahdi’s men do not know how to shoot  if they did, how many of Sir Charles Wilson’s or Brackenbury’s men would ever have got back to Korti? When there is time to think of such things, our defence force will doubtless get some kind of musketry instruction I do not mean prize shooting at Williamstown, but "position drill," "aiming at the wall,” judging distance drill, and occasionally firing at unknown distances. There must be many good shots in the ranks, but, on the other hand, hundreds of men who cannot shoot at all.

The expense of local squads of mounted infantry need not be very great Possibly a small sum would induce farmers or selectors to hire out their horses once a fortnight for three or four hours drill, with an understanding that they should be purchased at a fixed price by the Government "whenever it was necessary to mobilise the whole force with the local police stations, or even the local post offices, as a place to assemble at, the whole of the detached squads could be mobilised in 24 hours. Meantime it might be worth trying the experiment of "mounting” one company from each of our infantry battalion, selecting tho men who are tho best shots, and practising them in mounting and dismounting, holding their comrades horses, etc. The best among the Melbourne cab horses are about the kind of animals that would be required to carry them. Might not the volunteer cavalry corps which is now being enrolled in Melbourne do well to take Carrington’s or Methuen’s Mounted Rifles as their model? That would be better than any attempt to attain to 10th Hussars "form” under the actual circumstances of the case.

 

Further Reading:

The Light Horse

Australian Light Horse Militia

Militia 1899 - 1920

 


Citation: The Australian Mounted Rifles, Militia Outline, An essay by Ivan, 1885

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Wednesday, 9 December 2009 8:12 AM EAST

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