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"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre aims to present an accurate history as chroniclers of early Australian military developments from 1899 to 1920.

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre site holds over 12,000 entries and is growing daily.

Contact: Australian Light Horse Studies Centre

Let us hear your story: You can tell your story, make a comment or ask for help on our Australian Light Horse Studies Centre Forum called:

Desert Column Forum

WARNING: This site contains: names, information and images of deceased people; and, language which may be considered inappropriate today.

Friday, 13 November 2009
The Jifjafa Raid, Sinai, April 10 to 14, 1916, Falls Account
Topic: BatzS - Jifjafa

The Jifjafa Raid

Sinai, 10 - 14 April 1916

Falls Account

 

 

As part of the Official British War History of the Great War, Captain Cyril Falls and Lieutenant General George MacMunn were commissioned to produce a commentary on the Sinai, Palestine and Syrian operations that took place. In 1928, their finished work, Military Operations, Egypt and Palestine - From the outbreak of war with Germany to June 1917,  was published in London. Their book included a section specifically related to the Jifjafa Raid and is extracted below.

MacMunn, G. & Falls, C., Military operations: Egypt and Palestine, (London 1930), p. 160:

 

From Tor, at the southern end of Sinai, which was garrisoned by the 2nd Battalion Egyptian Army and had come under General Murray's control by arrangement with General Maxwell, a reconnaissance was carried out, and a small force of the enemy - chiefly Bedouin with a few Turkish officers - ejected from a camp established several miles inland. In No. 2 (the Central) Section a force about a squadron strong of the 8th and 9th Australian Light Horse and a detachment of Bikanir Camel Corps carried out between the 11th and 15th April a raid to Jifjafa, a distance of 52 miles, captured an Austrian engineer officer and 33 men, and destroyed a well-boring plant which had been at work for five months. At the same time the IX Corps in the Southern Section reconnoitred 30 miles to Bir el Giddi and the tracks leading east there from.

 

Further Reading:

The Jifjafa Raid, Sinai, April 10 to 14 

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: The Jifjafa Raid, Sinai, April 10 to 14, 1916, Falls Account

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EAST
Updated: Monday, 30 November 2009 8:11 AM EAST
The Battle of Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, 25 April 1915, Canterbury Infantry Battalion Roll of Honour
Topic: BatzG - Anzac

The Battle of Anzac Cove

Gallipoli, 25 April 1915

Roll of Honour

Canterbury Infantry Battalion


Poppies on the Auckland Cenotaph plinth

 

The Roll of Honour contains the names of all the men from the Canterbury Infantry Battalion who are known to have served and lost their lives during the Battle of Anzac, 25 April 1915.

 

Roll of Honour

 

Henry Thomas BARNETT, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

Arthur Clifford BOWEN, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

Thomas Leslie BURNS, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

 

Lewis Tom CHAPMAN, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

Robert Hunt CURRIE, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

 

Wilfred Ellis DOVE, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

 

Ralph FELDWICK, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

Arthur Ross FELLOWES, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

 

William GARFORTH, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

Allan Gordon GARLAND, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.


Albert Bert HIGHSTED, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

 

Robert Charles MACKIE, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

John Thomas MILBURN, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

 

Oswald Mark NORRIS, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.


Hubert Fair PINK, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

 

Harold John RADCLIFFE, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

 

Francis Leslie SAPSFORD, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

John Atkinson SCOTT, Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

 

Lest We Forget

 

Further Reading:

The Battle of Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, 25 April 1915

The Battle of Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, 25 April 1915, NZEF Roll of Honour 

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: The Battle of Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, 25 April 1915, Canterbury Infantry Battalion Roll of Honour

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EAST
Updated: Tuesday, 13 April 2010 10:06 AM EADT
Thursday, 12 November 2009
The Australian Light Horse, Notes on Cavalry Principles, Spanish Cavalry Training. Vol. IV, 1910
Topic: AIF - Lighthorse

The Australian Light Horse

Notes on Cavalry Principles

Spanish Cavalry Training. Vol. IV, 1910

 

The big news in the study of Light Horse methods and theory in 1910 was the new edition of Volume IV, Spanish Cavalry Training called Reglamento provisional para la Instruction tactics de las Tropas de Caballeria. It was published by the Spanish General Staff, Madrid, 1910. The nub of its message was quickly adapted for Australian conditions. The salient points were then made available to the Light Horse.

This summary was published in the Military Journal, April, 1911, p. 97

 

Volume IV of the Spanish Cavalry Training deals with " Combats and Manoeuvres"; it superseded the 1901 edition.

The strategic handling of cavalry does not come within the scope of the book, which deals exclusively with the tactical handling of the arm.

The dominant feature is insistence on the value of the spirit of the offensive as exemplified in phrases such as "inaction is the only unpardonable sin." About 20 pages out of 131 are devoted to dismounted action, it being stated that mounted action is the rule, dismounted action the exception.

The following are some of the points dealt with:-

 

Cavalry v. Cavalry.

The approach march is to be conducted in successive "bounds" covered by protective bodies, composed of sections or squadrons. The actual conduct of the fight must depend on the attendant circumstances, but the following principles should be adhered to:-

(a) A definite plan of attack should be formed best suited to the ground, the forces available and the enemy's dispositions.

(b) The force should be divided into different groups of combat, each with a distinct mission.

(c) Unanimity of action must exist between the various groups. It may be necessary to keep connexion between them for this purpose, but such connexion is not to interfere with the carrying out of the mission assigned to each group.

(d) The troops should be disposed in depth.

 

Cavalry v. Infantry.

The elements of a successful attack on infantry are as follows:

(1) Surprise;

(2) The enemy's physical exhaustion;

(3) Weakness of the enemy's fighting power owing to a weak firing line, shortage of ammunition, change of position, &c.

It would be most foolish to launch cavalry against unshaken infantry without fire preparation. But cavalry, with its attendant horse artillery and machine guns, now possesses such increased fire power that it is by no means impossible that it may defeat hostile infantry without assistance.

 

Dismounted action.

This increased fire power must not, however, be abused; it has not altered the fundamental principle of cavalry employment which is offensive action. Fire should be used to develop that principle, not as a substitute for it.

In the attack the employment of dismounted cavalry is not altogether dissimilar to that of infantry. They should advance in skirmishing order and will occupy successive fire positions. The method of advance should usually be by section rushes. Supports should not usually be employed, but a mounted reserve should be kept in hand to be used either mounted or dismounted, as circumstances may direct.

In the defence the firing line should usually occupy the crept line, unless there is much dead ground, when it should be advanced along the forward slope.

 

Pitched battle.

The efficiency of cavalry action depends on the position of the cavalry during the different phases of action. During the preliminary reconnaissance cavalry take a leading part in the reconnaissance work, after which they should be withdrawn to the line of the reserve. During the decisive attack cavalry must be energetically employed in co-operating with the other army to force a decision.

 

 

Further Reading:

The Light Horse

Australian Light Horse Militia

Militia 1899 - 1920

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: The Australian Light Horse, Notes on Cavalry Principles, Spanish Cavalry Training. Vol. IV, 1910

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EAST
Updated: Saturday, 12 December 2009 12:08 PM EAST
Wednesday, 11 November 2009
1st Australian Light Horse Brigade, Contents
Topic: AIF - 1B - 1 LHB

1st LH Bde, AIF

1st Australian Light Horse Brigade

Contents

 

1st Light Horse Brigade Colour Patch

 

Formed in August 1914 as part of the 1st Contingent and attached to the Australian Division, the 1st Light Horse Brigade was made up of Light Horsemen from four different states.

 

Structure

The Australian Light Horse – Structural outline

Australian Light Horse Order of Battle

 

Corps

Desert Mounted Corps (DMC)

 

Division

Anzac Mounted Division

 

Brigade

1st Australian Light Horse Brigade 

 

Regiments

1st Australian Light Horse Regiment, AIF, History

2nd Australian Light Horse Regiment, AIF, History

3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment, AIF, History

 

Support Units

1st Australian Light Horse Machine Gun Squadron, AIF

1st Australian Light Horse Signals Troop, AIF

1st Australian Light Horse Field Ambulance, AIF

 

History

Romani

1st Light Horse Brigade Account

1st LH Bde, AIF, War Diary Appendix Account 

Battle of Romani, Sinai, August 4 to 5, 1916, Roll of Honour, 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade

Bir el Abd

Bir el Abd, Sinai, 9 August 1916, 1st LH Bde, AIF, War Diary Account 

Bir el Abd, Sinai, 9 August 1916, Roll of Honour, 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade  

Bir el Mazar

Bir el Mazar, Sinai, 17 September 1916, 1st LH Bde, AIF, War Diary Account

Magdhaba

The Battle of Magdhaba, Sinai, December 23, 1916, 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade

The Battle of Magdhaba, Sinai, December 23, 1916, Roll of Honour, 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade

 

Embarkation

Full Roll

1st Australian Light Horse Brigade, AIF, Embarkation Roll, Roll: A - Z

 

Individual Rolls 

Brigade Headquarters Section

5th Company Army Service Corps

1st Reinforcement

2nd Reinforcement

3rd Reinforcement

4th Reinforcement

5th Reinforcement

6th Reinforcement

7th Reinforcement

8th Reinforcement

9th Reinforcement

10th Reinforcement

11th Reinforcement

12th Reinforcement

13th Reinforcement

14th Reinforcement

15th Reinforcement

16th Reinforcement

17th Reinforcement

 

Roll of Honour

Brigade

1st Australian Light Horse Brigade, AIF, Roll of Honour

Units within the Brigade

1st Australian Light Horse Brigade Headquarters, Roll of Honour

1st Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour

2nd Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour

3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour

Lest we forget

 

Further Reading:

1st Australian Light Horse Brigade

1st Australian Light Horse Brigade, AIF, Roll of Honour 

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1919

 


Citation: 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade, Contents

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EAST
Updated: Friday, 26 February 2010 4:31 PM EAST
Tuesday, 10 November 2009
1st Australian Light Horse Brigade, Outline
Topic: AIF - 1B - 1 LHB

1st LH Bde, AIF

1st Australian Light Horse Brigade

Outline

 

1st Light Horse Brigade Colour Patch

 

Outline of the 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade, AIF

Formed in August 1914 as part of the 1st Contingent and attached to the Australian Division, the 1st Light Horse Brigade was made up of Light Horsemen from four different states. This was the only Brigade recruited from a majority of men drawn immediately from the Militia formations within the various states. The Regiments included:

 



1st Australian Light Horse Regiment

This Regiment was recruited exclusively from New South Wales. "A" Squadron recruited mainly from 5th Light Horse Regiment (31 men) and 6th Light Horse Regiment (59 men).

"B" Squadron recruited mainly from 7th Light Horse Regiment (41 men) and 11th Light Horse Regiment (62 men).

"C" Squadron recruited mainly from 9th Light Horse Regiment (49 men).

 



2nd Australian Light Horse Regiment

This Regiment was recruited exclusively from Queensland. 

"A" Squadron recruited mainly from 2nd Light Horse Regiment (50 men).

"B" Squadron recruited mainly from 3rd Light Horse Regiment (34 men).

"C" Squadron recruited mainly from 4th Light Horse Regiment (64 men) and 27th Light Horse Regiment (30 men).

 



3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment

This Regiment was recruited from South Australia which contributed two squadrons and Tasmania providing the last squadron. 

"A" Squadron recruited mainly from the 23rd Light Horse Regiment region.

"B" Squadron recruited mainly from 24th Light Horse Regiment region.

"C" Squadron recruited exclusively from the 26th Light Horse Regiment region within Tasmania.

 





1st Signal Troop

The 1st Signal Troop was composed exclusively from Victorians from the Militia 10th and 21st Signal Troops.

 



1st Light Horse Field Ambulance

The 1st Light Horse Field Ambulance was formed with two sections: "A" Section recruited in Melbourne which included some 20 students from the Richmond Agricultural College; and, "B" Section recruited in Sydney and composed to a greater extent by Militia members from the 28th Light Horse Field Ambulance.

 

 

 

1st Light Horse Brigade Train

The 1st Light Horse Brigade Train was primarily recruited around Brisbane and trained at Enoggera. After Gallipoli, this unit underwent some name changes from 1st Supply Section in February 1916 to 32nd Australian Army Service Corps Company in February 1917.

 



6th Mobile Veterinary Section

After the formation of the Anzac Mounted Division, the three individual Regimental Veterinary sections were brigaded to form the 6th Mobile Veterinanry Section.

 



1st Light Horse Machine Gun Squadron

In July 1916, all Regimental Machine Gun Sections were to be excised and brigaded to form a Machine Gun Squadron. The 1st, 2nd and 3rd Machine Gun Sections were combined to form the 1st Machine Gun Squadron under the command of the Brigade.

 

 

 

Artillery

Artillery support was provided for the 1st Light Horse Brigade from British batteries. The first British battery attached to the Brigade was the 3rd (Territorial Force) Horse Artillery Brigade, Leicester Battery. This battery remained until the re-organisation of February 1918 when the Leicester Battery was replaced by the British 18th Royal Horse Artillery Brigade, Somerset Battery

 

1st Light Horse Training Regiment

Formed in Egypt during March 1916, this unit trained incoming reinforcements while allowing the wounded and sick a place to recover before returning to active service. The Training Regiment contained three squadrons, each duplicating the Regiments within the Brigade to whom it supplied the reinforcements. The Training Regiment was disbanded in July 1918 to be replaced by the Anzac Light Horse Training Regiment when recruits were no longer tied to a Regiment but placed in a general pool of reinforcements called the General Service Reinforcements.

 

1st Light Horse Double Squadron

Formed Egypt 6 July 1916 from 1st Light Horse Brigade reinforcements. It was officered and administered by the 1st Light Horse Brigade. This Double Squadron was broken up in November 1916 with the men being transferred to the newly formed Imperial Camel Corps Battalions.

 

Embarkation

The Brigade embarked to Egypt during the months of September and October 1914. In Egypt additional training occurred at the Mena Camp.

See: Troop transport ships for information and photographs about the various ships employed in transporting the troops to Egypt.

 

Colour Patch

To assist with identification of the various units within the AIF, Divisional Order No 81 (A) Administration was issued at Mena on 8 March 1915 detailing the Colour Patch for the 1st Light Horse Brigade as others received their colours. The colour patch was made of cloth 1¼ inches wide and 2¾ inches long and worn on the sleeve one inch below the shoulder seam. The colour patch for the 1st Light Horse Brigade was plain white.

 

1st Light Horse Brigade Colour Patch

 

The individual units attached to the 1st Light Horse Brigade carried the white colour as a lower triangular part of the colour patch, the unit itself having their colour on the top. This is illustrated with the above description about each individual unit.

 

Commanders

Brigadier General Henry “Harry” George Chauvel  15 August 1914 to 6 November 1915.

Brigadier General Charles Frederick Cox 6 November 1915 to 13 March 1919.

 

Attachments

Formed Australia August 1914.

Attached to the New Zealand and Australian Division from December 1914 to April 1915. Attachment ceased on the Division's deployment to Gallipoli.

Attached to the New Zealand and Australian Division at Gallipoli from May 1915 to February 1916.

Attached to the Anzac Mounted Division March 1916 until March 1919.

 

Campaigns

Egypt:

Gallipoli:

  • Defence of Anzac; and, 
  • Withdrawal from Anzac.

Sinai:

Palestine:

  • First Battle of Gaza;
  • Second Battle of Gaza;
  • Third Battle of Gaza;
  • Beersheba;
  • Jerusalem;
  • Jericho;
  • Es Salt;
  • Megiddo; and,
  • Amman 


Disbandment

The Brigade returned to Australia in March 1919. As each Regiment arrived in the specific home port, they were disbanded.

 

Embarkations:

The following list details all the embarkations in support of the 1st Light Horse Brigade, AIF, during the Great War. Each entry details the individual soldier's: rank on embarkation; full name; Declared age; last occupation held; last address as a civilian; enlistment Date; and, ultimate fate. Each man is linked to a brief military biography where ever possible. One interesting point is that many of the men listed in the embarkation roll for the 1st Light Horse Brigade ended up in a different unit altogether. This list details the men's starting point in the AIF.

 

Brigade Headquarters Section

Melbourne, Victoria on board HMAT A3 Orvieto 21 October 1914

5th Company Army Service Corps

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A5 Omrah 24 September 1914

1st Reinforcement

Melbourne, Victoria on board HMAT A30 Borda 22 December 1914

2nd Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A54 Runic 12 February 1915

3rd Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A54 Runic 12 February 1915

4th Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A15 Star Of England 8 April 1915

5th Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A55 Kyarra 16 April 1915

6th Reinforcement

Brisbane, Queensland on board HMAT A7 Medic 2 June 1915

7th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A21 Marere 16 August 1915

8th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A54 Runic 9 August 1915

9th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A8 Argyllshire 30 September 1915

10th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A69 Warilda 8 October 1915

11th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A14 Euripides 2 November 1915

12th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A37 Barambah 4 December 1915

13th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A35 Berrima 17 December 1915

14th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A70 Ballarat 16 February 1916

15th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A15 Star Of England 8 March 1916

16th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A71 Nestor 9 April 1916

17th Reinforcement

Sydney, New South Wales on board HMAT A10 Karroo 5 May 1916

See: Troop transport ships for information and photographs about the various ships employed in transporting the troops to Egypt.

 

Further Reading:

1st Australian Light Horse Brigade

1st Australian Light Horse Brigade, AIF, Roll of Honour 

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1919

 


Citation: 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade, Outline

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EAST
Updated: Friday, 26 February 2010 4:57 PM EAST

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