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"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre aims to present an accurate history as chroniclers of early Australian military developments from 1899 to 1920.

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Saturday, 16 May 2009
John Charles Hoad
Topic: Militia 1899-1920

John Charles Hoad


Colonel John Charles Hoad.


The following biography is extracted from the article by Warren Perry, 'Hoad, Sir John Charles (1856 - 1911)',  published in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, Online Edition, Canberra 2006, ISSN 1833-7538. The photograph has been added from a private collection and is not part of the original ADB text.



Sir JOHN CHARLES HOAD,  (1856-1911), soldier, was born on 25 January 1856 at Goulburn, New South Wales, son of George Hoad, labourer and later baker, and his wife Catherine, née Kearney. Nothing is known of Hoad's boyhood or education, but it is believed that at 6 he was orphaned and brought up by relations in the Wangaratta district of Victoria.

On 1 January 1878 he entered the Victorian Education Department and was appointed head teacher at Gooramadda State School; in September he became an assistant at Wangaratta School and in April 1881 head teacher at Wangaratta North. Interested in sport, Hoad proved himself a keen horseman and good cricketer, footballer and athlete. His last teaching appointment was at Brighton Road, St Kilda, school.

On 5 December 1884 Hoad became a militia lieutenant in the 1st Battalion, Victorian Rifles. He resigned from the Education Department and joined the permanent staff of the Victorian Military Forces on 11 February 1886. Posted first to the Cadet Corps, on 4 June he became adjutant of the Victorian Mounted Rifles commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Tom Price. A captain since March 1887, Hoad was promoted major in April 1889.

In October Hoad left Melbourne for England where he underwent training courses in signalling, military engineering and musketry. He returned to Melbourne in March 1891 and in January 1892 was appointed second-in-command of the Victorian Mounted Rifles. He pushed ahead in the service and consolidated his position. In March 1895 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel and appointed assistant adjutant general at Victorian Headquarters—a post which had hitherto been reserved for a British Army officer.

In England again in 1897, Hoad attended Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee celebrations in London and served on the personal staff of Lord Roberts and the Duke of Connaught. He returned to Melbourne in October. On 28 April 1899 he attained the rank of colonel.

During the South African War Hoad served as a special service officer, and on arrival at Cape Town on 26 November 1899 was given command of the 1st Australian Regiment, the first force composed of troops from Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania. The regiment moved to the Orange River on 1 December and joined the Kimberley Relief Force. At Bloemfontein in April 1900 when the regiment was absorbed into the 1st Mounted Infantry Brigade, Hoad became assistant adjutant general to the brigade under Major General Sir Edward Hutton. In July Hoad was evacuated to hospital in Cape Town and from there was invalided to Australia, arriving in Melbourne on 26 August. For his services he was appointed C.M.G., awarded the Queen's Medal and mentioned in dispatches. He was aide-de-camp to the governor-general from August 1902 to October 1906.

During Hutton's period in command of Australia's military forces after Federation, Hoad was his principal staff officer with the title of deputy adjutant general and chief staff officer. From November 1903 to January 1904 he temporarily commanded the 6th Military District (Tasmania). Early in 1904 relations between himself and Hutton became strained because, against Hutton's advice, the Deakin government sent Hoad for attachment to the Japanese Army, as an observer, in the Russo-Japanese war in Manchuria. For his services he received the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun, 3rd class, and the Japanese War Medal.

When the Military Board was set up in January 1905 Hoad became its principal military member with the title of deputy adjutant general. In September 1906 he was appointed, temporarily, inspector general with the temporary rank of brigadier general. In January 1907 he was promoted major general and confirmed as inspector general.

In 1908 Hoad was sent to England to discuss the creation of an Imperial General Staff at the War Office, London, and to take part in the autumn manoeuvres of the British Army. Hoad was an ambitious officer and adept at cultivating friends in high places. During his absence in London (Sir) William Bridges's appointment as first chief of the Australian General Staff in January 1909 did little to improve their long-standing antipathy.

On Hoad's return in May (Sir) George Pearce, minister for defence, recommended that Hoad's recommendations for an Australian section of the Imperial General Staff be accepted and that Hoad be appointed chief of the Australian General Staff vice Bridges who was posted to the Imperial General Staff, London. On the creation of the Imperial General Staff Hoad, though not a staff college graduate, became concurrently, on 1 July 1909, chief of the Australian section of the staff.

On 21 December 1909 Hoad met Field Marshal Lord Kitchener at Darwin and accompanied him on his exhaustive tour of inspection of Australia's land defences which was completed in Melbourne on 12 February 1910. Later, while immersed in the planning for introduction of Australia's universal training scheme, his health deteriorated and he went on sick leave on 1 June 1911. On the occasion of the coronation of King George V on 22 June Hoad was appointed K.C.M.G. He was unable to attend the official opening of the Royal Military College, Duntroon, in June and died in Melbourne of heart disorder on 6 October 1911. He was buried with military honours in St Kilda cemetery.

By ambition, industry and sustained work at high pressure Hoad held the two highest posts open to an officer of his time in Australia's military forces. He had spent most of his official life as a staff officer as few opportunities existed in his time for a regular officer to gain command experience. Despite a 'spare military figure' Hoad was 'full of suppressed energy', and his manner was quiet, tactful and unpretentious. He was a good listener; he spoke little but at the appropriate time had 'a ready flow of speech'.

Hoad had married a widow, Sarah Denniston Sennetts, née Brown, at Wangaratta Post Office, with Wesleyan forms on 22 December 1881. They had a daughter, who died as a child, and two sons.

Their younger son OSWALD VICK (1888-1963), was born on 30 July 1888 at South Melbourne and educated at Melbourne Church of England Grammar School. He was commissioned in the militia in February 1907 and in May 1909 became an honorary aide-de-camp to his father. In 1910 he transferred to the staff of the permanent military forces.

In 1913-15 he was an exchange officer with the Canadian Army. After staff postings in Victoria and Tasmania he was seconded to the Australian Imperial Force as a captain and in 1917-18 saw active service on the Western Front with the 21st and 22nd Battalions. He was wounded in action on 5 October 1918 and invalided to Australia in May 1919.

Resuming duty with the permanent forces in June 1919, Hoad was promoted major in November and in October 1920 became one of the original officers of the newly formed Australian Staff Corps. From February 1921 to July 1922 he was director of drill at the Royal Military College, Duntroon. During World War II Hoad occupied staff positions in Australia; he was promoted temporary brigadier in 1942 and retired in March 1946. He died at Southport, Queensland, on 12 September 1963. On 10 June 1913 at St Peter's Church, Melbourne, he had married Sheila Mairi McDonald; there was one son of the marriage.


Select Bibliography

R. A. Preston, Canada and ‘Imperial Defense’, (Durham, NC, 1967);

C. D. Coulthard-Clark, A Heritage of Spirit, (Melbourne, 1979);

W. Perry, ‘The military life of Major-General Sir John Charles Hoad’, Victorian Historical Magazine, 29 (1959), no 3;

Lithgow Mercury, 18 October 1907;

Punch (Melbourne), 30 Decemeber 1909;

Age (Melbourne), 19 January 1912.

Print Publication Details:

Warren Perry, 'Hoad, Sir John Charles (1856 - 1911)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 9, Melbourne University Press, 1983, pp 311-312.

Further Reading:

The Australian Militia, 1899 - 1920


Citation: John Charles Hoad

Posted by Project Leader at 10:11 AM EADT
Updated: Saturday, 16 May 2009 11:21 AM EADT
Rifles Clubs, Charles William Prott, 1851 - 1926
Topic: MilitiaRC - NSW

Rifles Clubs

Charles William Prott, 1851 - 1926


CW Prott and G Lindsay from NSW came 1st and 2nd respectively at the Victorian Rifle Association "Queen's Cup".

[From: The Town and Country Journal, 23 December 1899, p. 38.]


Born 1851 at Bad Vilbel, a town near Frankfurt am Main in Germany, Charles William Prott was the son of George J (d. 1879) and Mary Margaret (d. 1903) Prott. His siblings were Frederick (d. 1919), Elizabeth A (d. 1922), George J. (d. 1916), Andreas Boysen (d. 1935). The Prott family emigrated to Australia on the "Commodore Perry" and landing at Sydney but settling in Kiama.

Charles William Prott found work with the New South Wales Post Office. He worked in Sydney and then Parramatta. 

In 1876 Charles William Prott met Sarah Parsons in Parramatta where he was living and working with the New South Wales Post Office. Later that year Charles William Prott married Sarah Parsons in Parramatta. 

A few years later Prott moved his family to Lithgow where his job took him. It was here, some nine years after their marriage that Sarah gave birth to their only child, William Charles in 1885 (d. 1970).

The Prott family eventually settled in Wollongong making it their home. It was here that Prott worked his way up to becoming the Wollongong Post Master.

The passion that consumed Prott was rifle shooting. He was instrumental in establishing the Wollongong Rifle Club, which came into being on 20 September 1893. Prott soon became the President of the Wollongong Rifle Club.

Rifle shooting in New South Wales was seen as a quasi military activity so many were affiliated with a Militia unit, and in this case, it was the Headquarters Company of the 2nd NSW Infantry Regiment. It was a member of the Southern Rifle Association located at Mossvale.

Over the years it was seen that the Southern Rifle Association was not able to represent the shooters on the south coast of New South Wales. In response during 1899, the local shooters formed the South Coast Rifle Association located at Kiama.

In the same year, he won the Victorian Rifle Association "Queen's Cup". The Age of 20 November 1899, p. 10 gave the following summary:

The winner, Mr. C.W. Prott, is about 48 years of age, and a native of Germany, but a colonist of very old standing.  He has long been a devotee of rifle shooting, and during the past five years organised the Wollongong Rifle Club, which has made great advances under his tuition and encouragement.  Mr. Prott won the New South Wales Championship in 1894, and carried off the Tasmanian Championship in the same year by very brilliant performances.  In 1898 he won two challenge matches in connection to the infantry regiment to which he is attached, and also was the principal member of the champion team of the year.  He is a very moderate smoker and drinker, and has a nerve as cool and steady as the best marksman to be found.

Mr. Lindsay, the runner-up, for the Queen’s, is of middle age, and, like the winner, has some very good performances to his credit, amongst them, being the New South Wales Championship, which he won in 1897.


The next year, from 12 - 16 June 1900, the South Coast Rifle Association held their first of many Annual Prize Meeting at Kiama. As a contestant, Prott was quite successful. Below is a listing of the events in which he took part.

The "Maccabe" on the 400 yards and 500 yards ranges with 7 shots at each. Prott 12th, prize money, £1.

The "Illawarra" on the 500 yards and 600 yards ranges with 7 shots at each. Prott 2nd, prize money, £4.

The "Campbells" on the 500 yards and 600 yards ranges with 7 shots at each. Prott 2nd, prize money, £4.

The "Illawarra" on the 500 yards and 600 yards ranges with 7 shots at each. Prott 2nd, prize money, £4.

The Rifle Clubs' Match included 14 teams. The Wollongong Reserves comprising CW Prott, G Lindsay, M Byron, T Byron and W Harrigan won 1st prize of £15. 

The President's Match on the 800 yards with 10 shots. Prott 1st, prize money, £6.

The "Roberts" on the 900 yards with 10 shots. Prott 20th, prize money, £1.

The "French" on the 400 yards kneeling, 500 yards prone with 7 shots at each. Prott 1st, prize money, £5.

Rapid Firing, 500 yards kneeling or sitting with 10 shots in 100 seconds at targets 6 foot by 4 foot. Prott hit with 9 shots, prize money, £1.

Volley Firing, 10 volleys at unknown ranges, first five volleys in any military position, second five volleys kneeling or standing, open to teams of five and a commander from any squadron, battery, company, or rifle club in accordance, with the conditions governing the Rifle Clubs' Match, to be completed in 10 minutes. The Wollongong Rifle Club team was given a 5% handicap and came 4th, prize money, £4/10/-.

South Coast Champion Aggregate included all scores in all matches except the Teams and Beginners. The winner of the Gold Medal and £10 was Prott with a score of 370, 16 points ahead of his next rival, Private ER Armstrong of Kiama.

Prott's total prize money for the competition was £42, almost half a year's income for the average worker. This gives a good insight into Prott's ability as a shot.


The South Coast Rifle Association 500 yard range with shooters.

[From: The Town and Country Journal, 23 June 1900, p. 26.] 


Prott's wife, Sarah died in 1914.  

When the Great War broke out, the Prott family faced a major dilemma. At the outbreak, anti-German feeling ran high with many Germans being abused, insulted and assaulted. Others lost their jobs.

While Charles William Prott had been naturalised in Sydney on 18 August 1903, making him a British subject, it would appear that he never lost his German accent. To save himself some trouble, so to those who asked him about the accent, Prott told them that he was from Belgium. Rather than evoking the usual anti-German sentiment, he was seen as some sort of hero.

Things began to unravel when the Belgium Consul in Sydney heard of these claims by Prott through people wanting to ascertain their accuracy. They wrote to the Department of External Affairs on 16 February 1916 seeking clarification of the status of Prott. The truth came out although it is unsure as to the actual impact on Prott's life. There is no indication that the Belgium Consul actually pursued the subject any further.

In 1917, Prott remarried. His new wife was Ethel Mary James. The marriage too place in Burwood. Prott returned to Kiama where he spent the rest of his life, dying in 1926.

The legacy of Charles William Prott in the Rifle Club movement in the early twentieth century was quite profound. His shooting style was excellent and this inspired many men to copy his techniques and so improve their own shooting. Prott's active promotion of shooting also brought him into contact with many different levels of New South Wales with an impact that is hard to guage but certainly was regionally immense in his lifetime.


Acknowledgement:  Thanks to the assistance from Andrew J. Kilsby, the author of, The Bisley Boys - The Colonial Contingents to Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee 1897 - The Victorian Rifle Team, (Melbourne 2008). Copies of this book may be obtained directly from Andrew who may be currently contacted at:

kilsbya at optusnet dot com dot au


Further Reading:

New South Wales Rifles Clubs, 1893 - 1901

New South Wales Rifles Clubs


Citation: Rifles Clubs, Charles William Prott, 1851 - 1926

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Monday, 18 May 2009 12:32 AM EADT
Egyptian Expeditionary Force, Personnel
Topic: AIF & MEF & EEF

Egyptian Expeditionary Force



The following is extracted from the seminal work of Major A. F. Becke, R.F.A. (Retired), Hon. M.A. (Oxon.) which now is the Great War British standard reference called: History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence: Order Of Battle, Part 4, the Army Council, G.H.Q.s, Armies, and Corps, 1914-1918, published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1945, from pp. 27 - 32.

This entry is presented "as is". A table of abbreviations employed is found at the commencement of this section. Additionally, where necessary regarding Becke's understanding of Australian units is inaccurate, an explanatory note is added.


Egyptian Expeditionary Force

[This title was adopted on 20 March 1916, when General Sir A. J. Murray assumed command of the Mediterranean Expeditionary force and the force in Egypt.]



[30 October, 1912] - Major-General Hon. J. H. G. BYNG [G.O.C. of the British Force in Egypt].

8 September, 1914 - Lieut.-General Sir J. G. MAXWELL [G.O.C. of the British Force in Egypt].

27 October, 1915 - General Sir C. C. MONRO [General Sir C. C. Monro left. Alexandria on 11 January 1916, and returned to France to command the First Army, B.E.F. (4 February 1916).

9 January, 1916 - General Sir A. J. MURRAY.

28 June, 1917 - General Sir E. H. H. ALLENBY.


27 October 1915 - Maj.-Gen. A. L. LYNDEN-BELL.

16 September 1917 - Maj.-Gen. L. J. BOLS.


23 November 1915 - 2 June 1916 - Br.-Gen. W. GILLMAN.

13 August 1917 - Br.-Gen. G. P. DAWNAY.

20 February 1918 - Br.-Gen. A. B. ROBERTSON.

16 April 1918 - Br.-Gen. W. H. BARTHOLOMEW.

B.-G.G.S. (I).

8 August, 1918 - Br. Gen. B. T. BUCKLEY.

A. & Q.


23 October 1915 - Maj.-Gen. E. M. WOODWARD.

1 February 1916 - Lt.-Col. J. B. WELLS (acting).

9 March 1916 - Lt.-Col. C. P. SCUDAMORE (acting).

1 April 1916 - Lt.-Col. W. J. AINSWORTH (acting).

6 April 1916 - Maj.-Gen. J. ADYE.

23 March 1918 - Maj.-Gen. W. G. B. WESTERN.


23 October 1915 - Maj.-Gen. W. CAMPBELL

Assistant to D.-Q.-M.-G.

2 August, 1917 - Br.-Gen. E. F. O. GASCOIGNE.

27 January, 1918 - Br.-Gen. E. EVANS.


  1. 23 November 1915 - Maj.-Gen. S. C. U. SMITH.


23 November 1915 - Maj.-Gen. G. WILLIAMS.

14 May 1916 - Maj.-Gen. H. B. H. WRIGHT.

D. Army Signals.

23 November, 1915 - Br.-Gen. M.G.E. BOWMAN-MANIFOLD.

Force in Egypt.

7 January 1918 - Maj.-Gen. H. D. WATSON.

Western Frontier Force.

[Became Delta and Western Force on 6 March 1917; ceased to exist on 21 March 1918.]

13 May 1916 - Lt.-Gen. Sir B. T. MAHON.

21 June 1916 - Maj.-Gen. Sir C. M. DOBELL.

19 September 1916 - Lt.-Gen. Sir C. M. DOBELL.

4 October 1916 - Maj.-Gen. W. A. WATSON.

6 March 1917 - 21 March 1918 - Br.-Gen. H. G. CASSON.

Coastal Section, Western Force.

22 March 1917 – January 1918 - Br.-Gen. R.M. YORKE.

Southern Section, Western Force.

22 March 1917 - Col. R.W.H. WILLIAMS-WYNN.

Canal Zone.

September 1918 - Br -Gen. A. H. O. LLOYD.

Desert Column.

[The Staff of the Desert Column consisted of: Lt.-Col. V.M. Fergusson (G.S.O.1), Lt.-Col. E.F. Trew (A.-A. & Q.-M.-G.) Br.-Gen. A. D'A. King (B.-G., R.A.), and Br.-Gen. R. L. Waller (C.E. until 28 February 1917; then Br.-Gen. R.E.M. Russell), Desert Column disappeared in August, 1917, on reorganization of E.E.F.]

7 December 1916 - Lt.-Gen. Sir P. W. CHETWODE, Bt.

21 April 1917 - 2 August 1917 - Maj.-Gen. Sir H. G. CHAUVEL.

Southern Canal Section.

4 February 1917 - Br.-Gen. P. C. PALIN.

25 June 1917 - March 1918 - Br.-Gen. E. R. B. MURRAY.

Eastern Force.

[The Staff of Eastern force consisted of: Br.-Gen. G. P. Dawnay (B.-G.G.S.), Br-Gen. E. F. O. Gascoigne (D.-A. & Q.-M.-G.) Br.-Gen. A. H. Short (B.-G., R.A.), and Br.-Gen. F. Mc L. Blair (C.E. until 1 March 1917; then Br-Gen. R. L. Waller). Eastern Force disappeared in August 1917, on reorganization of E.E.F.]

18 October 1916 - Lt.-Gen. Sir C. M. DOBELL.

21 April 1917 - 2 August 1917 - Lt.-Gen. Sir P. W. CHETWODE, Bt.

D. Supplies & Transport.

23 November 1915 - Br.-Gen. F.W.B. KOE.

26 July 1916 - Br.-Gen. G.F. DAVIES.

D. Ordnance services.

23 November 1915 - Br.-Gen. H.W. PERRY.

22 August 1916 - Br.-Gen. P.A. BAINBRIDGE.

D. Works.

23 November 1915 - Br.-Gen. E.M. PAUL.

D. Labour.

16 August 1917 - Br.-Gen. R.C. JELLICOE.


23 November 1915 - Maj.-Gen. W. BABTIE, V.C.

17 March 1916 - Maj.-Gen. W.G.A. BEDFORD (sick, 7/4/16).

11 April 1916 - Maj.-Gen. J. MAHER.

9 October 1917 - Maj.-Gen. A. E. C. KEBLE (temporary).

2 February 1918 - Maj.-Gen. W. T. SWAN.

19 September 1918 - Maj.-Gen. R. H. LUCE.


7 November 1915 - Br.-Gen. E.R.C. BUTLER.

D. Remounts.

23 October 1915 - Lt.-Col. V.R. HINE-HAYCOCK. (Asst.-Dir., acting).

28 October 1915 - Br.-Gen. C. L. BATES.

D. Railway Traffic.

7 December 1915 - Col. Sir G.B. MACAULEY.

10 April 1917 - Br.-Gen. Sir G. B. MACAULEY.

D. Inland Water Transport.

10 February 1917 - Lt.-Col. W. H. COYSH (A.-D.).

23 July 1918 - Col. W. N. BICKET (D.-D.).

30 October 1918 - Br.-Gen. W.N. BICKET.

Training Directorate.

16 April 1918 - Br.-Gen. A. B. ROBERTSON.

Alexandria District.

9 December 1915 - Br.-Gen. R.C. BOYLE.

Sollum District.

15 July, 1916 - Br.-Gen. H.W. HODGSON.

8 February 1918 - Br.-Gen. R.M. YORKE.

L. of C. Defences.

28 January 1916 - Maj.-Gen. W. A. WATSON.

4 October 1916 – 6 March 1917 - Br.-Gen. H.G. CASSON.

Levant Base.
Cdt. & I.G. Cmns.

24 December 1915 - Lt.-Gen. E.A. ALTHAM.

15 November 1916 - 29 January 1917 - Lt.-Col. St. G.B. ARMSTRONG (A.-A.-G.).

Palestine L. of C. Defences.

2 May 1917 - 6 January 1918 - Br.-Gen. H.D. WATSON.

Inspector, Palestine L. of C.

2 May 1917 - Br.-Gen. E.N. BROADBENT.

Military Governor, Jerusalem.

9 December 1917 - Br.-Gen. R. M. BOKTON.

27 December 1917 - Col. RONALD STORRS.

Hejaz Operations.

[In April, 1918, became S.S.O. Northern Hejaz Operations. Lt.-Col. A.G.C, Dawnay was  appointed G.S.O.I.H.Q. Hejaz Operations on 5 November 1917.]

6 December 1916 - Lt.-Col. T.E. LAWRENCE (S.S.O.).

Occupied Enemy Territory Admn.

16 January 1917 - Br.-Gen. G.F. CLAYTON.

16 April 1918 - Maj.-Gen. Sir A.W.

Chief Political Officer.

25 March 1918 - Br.-Gen. G.F. CLAYTON.


High Commissioner & C.-in-C.

5 August 1914 - Major Sir H.G. GOOLD-ADAMS.

January 1915 - Major Sir J.E. CLAUSON.

Commandant, Troops.

December 1916 - Col. Sir H.G. Dixon.

June 1918 - Maj. J. G. B. LETHBRIDGE.

Ordnance Base Depot, Alexandria.

[Served both the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and the Force in Egypt until 20 March 1916, when the Egyptian Expeditionary Force came into being.]

22 February 1915 - Br.-Gen. R.W.M. JACKSON.

G.H.Q. (3rd Echelon).

[Served both the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and the Force in Egypt until 20 March 1916, when the Egyptian Expeditionary Force came into being.]

28 July 1915 - Br.-Gen. T.E. O'LEARY (D.-A.-G.).

8 March 1916 - Lt.-Col. G.N. FITZJOHN (A.-A.-G.).

6 April 1916 - Lt.-Col. C.P. SCUDAMORE (A.-A.-G.).

10 October 1917 - Br.-Gen. C.P. SCUDAMORE (D.-A.-G.).

Liaison Officer with War Office.

13 June 1917 - Lt.-Col. A.P. WAVELL.

29 Dec., 1917 - Lt.-Col. A.C.M. WATERFIELD.

Liaison Officer with French E.F.

29 March 1916 - Lt.-Col. G.E. TYRRELL.

7 July 1916 - Lt.-Col. E. L. STRUTT.

4 November 1916 - 9 January 1918 - Capt. I.M. SMITH (with French Navy).

Liaison Officer with French Contingent.

28 December 1916 - Lieut. G.J.A. MARC.

14 February 1918 - Maj. R.H. ST. MAUR.

Liaison Officer with Italian Contingent.

June 1917 - Lieut. F.J.R. RODD.

29 April, 1918 - Capt. R.B. MITFORD.

August 1918 - Lieut. J.D.O. MURRAY.


4 August 1914 - Cairo.

25 January 1916 - Ismailia.

[Headquarters of the Force in Egypt, as well as of the M.E.F., until 20 March 1916, when the Force in Egypt and the M.E.F. merged and were known henceforward as the E.E.F.]

Noon, 23 October, 1916. Cairo.

[On 28 June 1917 General Sir E.H.H. Allenby assumed Command of the E.E.F. General Allenby visited Khan Yunis (Palestine) on 27 July 1917; Shellal and Rafa on 29 July 1917 ; Deir el Belah on 30 July 1917 ; Kantara on 31 July 1917, and returned on the same day to Cairo.]

11 August 1917 - Kelab (Palestine: 2 miles S.W. of Khan Yunis).

Note: It is 200 miles from Cairo to Khan Yunis, and 50 miles from Khan Yunis to Bir Salem.

21 January 1918 - Bir Salem (near El Ramleh).

Noon, 31 October, 1918. Armistice with Turkey came into force.

Further Reading:

AIF and the EEF


Citation: Egyptian Expeditionary Force, Personnel

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Wednesday, 20 May 2009 7:38 PM EADT
Order Of Battle of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, September 1918, Part 6, General Headquarters Troops
Topic: AIF & MEF & EEF

Order Of Battle of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, September 1918

Part 6, General Headquarters Troops


As part of the Official British War History of the Great War, Captain Cyril Falls was commissioned to produce a commentary on the Sinai, Palestine and Syrian operations that took place. In 1930, his finished work, Military Operations Egypt and Palestine from June 1917 to the end of the war, produced in two parts, was published in London. The book included Appendix 2 which specifically detailed the Order Of Battle of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, October 1917 and is extracted below. Falls makes the comment that this Order of Battle was not as comprehensive as that produced in the earlier volume.

Falls, C, Military Operations Egypt and Palestine from June 1917 to the end of the war, Part II, London, 1930, Appendix 3 p. 673:


General Headquarters Troops.

Royal Air Force, Middle East.

[Note: In theory, there is no more reason for including this headquarters than that of the Admiral on the Egyptian Station, for like his, it was, since the formation of the Royal Air Force, an independent command. In practice, where operations were concerned, Major General Salmond acted under Sir Edmund Allenby's orders.]

G.O.C. -

Major General W. G. H. Salmond, D.S.O.


Palestine Brigade R.A.F. -

Br. General A. E. Borton, D.S.O.


5th (Corps) Wing (Nos. 14, 113, and 142nd Sqdns.).

40th (Army) Wing (Nos. 111, 144, and 145 Sqdns., No. 1 Sqdn. Australian F.C.).

No. 21 Balloon Coy.



Previous: Order Of Battle of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, September 1918, Part 5, Chaytor's Force 

Next: AIF, MEF and the EEF


Further Reading:

AIF & MEF & EEF, Contents 

AIF, MEF and the EEF


Citation: Order Of Battle of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, September 1918, Part 6, General Headquarters Troops

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Monday, 20 July 2009 11:56 AM EADT
Friday, 15 May 2009
Egyptian Expeditionary Force, Battles and Engagements
Topic: AIF & MEF & EEF

Egyptian Expeditionary Force

Battles and Engagements


The following is extracted from the seminal work of Major A. F. Becke, R.F.A. (Retired), Hon. M.A. (Oxon.) which now is the Great War British standard reference called: History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence: Order Of Battle, Part 4, the Army Council, G.H.Q.s, Armies, and Corps, 1914-1918, published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1945, from pp. 33 - 44.

This entry is presented "as is". A table of abbreviations employed is found at the commencement of this section. Additionally, where necessary regarding Becke's understanding of Australian units is inaccurate, an explanatory note is added.

Battles and Engagements.

This table of battles and engagements, which embraces some seven different theatres of activity, is given chronologically, in order to emphasize the numerous demands made on G.H.Q. E.E.F. to meet the calls of the wide-spread local operations. This table also emphasizes the change-over from merely defensive operations to those active operations which culminated in the invasion of the enemy territories - Palestine and Syria.


Operations in the Bab el Mandeb.

10 November 1914 - Capture of Sheikh Said

[29th Ind. Inf. Bde. & 23/Sikh P.].


Defence of Egypt.

3 & 4 February 1915 - Actions on the Suez Canal

[10th Ind. & 11th Ind. Divs., N.Z. Inf. Bde., Impl. Ser. Cav. Bde., Herts. Yeo., Westminster Dgns., A Sqdn. D.L.O. Yeo., Bikanir Camel Corps, III E. Lanc, R.F.A., 5th Egyptian Bty., 1st E. Lanc. Fd. Coy., E. Lanc. Sig. Coy., with 1 Flight R.F.C., & 1 French Seaplane Flight.].

Operations in the Bab el Mandeb.

14 & 15 June 1915 - Turkish Attack on Perim

[Detnt., 23/Sikh Pioneers].

Defence of Aden.

4 and 5 July 1915 - Lahaj (20 miles N.N.W. of Aden).

[Aden Troop, Camel Bty. R.G.A., 23/Fortress Coy., 3/S. and M., S.W.B. (Brecknock Bn.), 23/Sikh P., 126/Baluchis].

20 July 1915 - Sheikh 'Othman (7 miles N.N.W. of Aden)

[From Egypt B.Bty., H.A.C., Berks. Bty., 28th Ind. Inf. Bde. ; and from Aden : Aden Troop, Camel Bty., 23/Fortress Coy., and 3/S. & M.].

Note: This force included elements from the 12th A.L.H.R.

Western Frontier-Senussi Operations.

11-13 December1915 - Wadi Senab

[Notts. Bty., 2/Comp. Yeo. Regt., R.N.A.C.D., 6/R.S., and 15/Sikhs.].

25 December1915 - Wadi Majid

[Notts. Bty., Comp. Yeo. Bde., 2/8/Middx., 15/Sikhs, 1st N.Z. Rif. Bde.].


[On the 9th January 1916, Lieut.-General Sir A. J. Murray became G.O.C.-in-C. of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, and Lieut.-General Sir J. Maxwell then became responsible for the security of the Nile Delta, except in respect of an attack from the east.]

Western Frontier-Senussi Operations.

23 January 1916 – Halazin.

[A Bty. H.A.C., Notts. Bty., Comp. Yeo. Bde., 6/R.S., 2/8/Mddx., 1/N.Z. Rif. Bde., 2/S. Afr. Inf., 15/Sikhs].

26 February 1916 – Agagiya.

["Lukin's Force" (Br.-Gen. H. T. Lukin.) - Dorset. Yeo., 1 Sqdn. Bucks. Yeo., Notts. Bty., 6/R. Scots, 1st and 3rd S. Afr. Inf.]

20 March 1916 - On this day the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and the Force in Egypt were amalgamated and became the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. This Force was placed under the supreme command of General Sir A. J. Murray.

[Lieut.-General Sir John G. Maxwell left Cairo for England on 21 March 1918, and on 27 April 1916 became G.O.C. Irish Command (App. 2).]


22 April 1916 – Dueidar.

[4/R. Scots, 5/R. Scots (155th Bde., 52nd Div.)].

23 April 1916 – Qatia.

[5th Mtd. Bde., 2 Aus. L. H. Bde., Bikanir Camel Corps, 4/R. Scots. and 5/R. Scots.]

Sudan - Darfur Operations.

22 and 23 May 1916 - Beringia and Occupation of el Fasher

[" Kelly's Force" [Lieut.-Col. P. V. Kelly.] (Egyptian Army); 8 Mtn. guns (Egyptian Arty.), 14 Maxims, 4 Cos. Camel Corps, 8 Cos. 13/ and 14/ Sudanese Inf., and Arab. Bn.].


4 and 5 August - Battle of Romani.

[R.F.C., 5th Mtd. Bde., A. and N.Z. Mtd. Bde., 3rd A. L. H. Bde., Impl. Camel Corps, Bikanir Camel Corps, 1st Dismtd. Bde., 42nd Div., 52nd Div., and 158th Bde. (53rd Div.) under 52nd Div. on 4 and 5 August 1916.]

Note: While Becke states “A. and N.Z. Mtd. Bde., 3rd A. L. H. Bde.” this formation was the Anzac Mounted Division with four light horse brigades. No formation called the “A. and N.Z. Mtd. Bde” existed although the 3rd A. L. H. Bde operated independent to the other three brigades in the Division during the Battle of Romani.


[In the Attack on Medina (6 June 1916) and the Captures of Mecca (13 June 1916), Jidda (16 June 1916), and Yambo (27 July 1916) only Arab Forces were engaged. The attacks to put the Hejaz Railway out of action were begun in October, 1916, and were continued until the end of the war.]

22 September 1916 - Capture of Taif.

[Arab Forces, with Egyptian Army Arty. Detnt. (4, 5” Hows., 6 Mtn. guns), and 1 Maxim Bty.].

Western Frontiers - Senussi Operations.

17-22 October 1916 - Dakla Oases.

[Impl. Camel Corps and Light Armoured Cars].

Sudan - Darfur Operations.

8 November 1916 – Giuba.

[1 Mtn. gun. 4 Maxims, and 150 rifles, 13/Sudanese Inf.].

Defence of Aden.

7 December 1916 – Jabir.

[26/CavaIry, 4/D.C.L.L, 75/Carnatic Inf., and 109/Inf.]


23 December 1916 – Magdhaba.

[R.F.C., A .and N.Z. Mtd. Div. (less 2/A.L.H. Bde.) ImpI. Camel Bde., Inverness and Somerset. Bties., and Hong Kong and Singapore Mtn. Btv.].



9 January 1917 – Rafa.

[R.F.C.. 5th Mtd. Bde., A. and N.Z. Mtd. Div. (less 2/A.L. H. Bde.), Impl. Camel Bde., No. 7 Light Car Patrol, B. Bty. H.A.C., Leicester, Inverness, and Somerset Bties., and Hong Kong and Singapore Mtn. Bty.].


[Only Arab Forces under the Emir Feisal were engaged in the Fight at Abu el Lissan (15 miles S.S.W, of Ma'an) on the evening of 2 July 1917, and in the Occupation of Aqaba (6 July 1917.) The Turkish attack on Petra (21 October 1917) was met by Arab Forces under Gaafer Pasha.]

24 January 1917 - Capture of Er Wejh.

[Arab Forces, assisted by R.F.C. and Naval Landing Party].

Western Frontier - Senussi operations.

3 - 5 February 1917 - Siwa Oasis.

[“Hodgson's Column": (Br.-Gen. H.W. Hodgson.) Light Armoured Cars and Light Car Patrols.]


26 and 28 March 1917, FIRST BATTLE OF GAZA.

[“Eastern Force": (Eastern Force was formed on 18 October 1916 and placed under Lt.-Gen. Sir C.M. Dobell; Desert Column was formed on 7 December 1916 and was commanded by Lt.-Gen. Sir P.W. Chetwode, Bt. On 21 April 1917 Lt.-Gen. Sir P. W. Chetwode took over the command of Eastern Force from Lt.-Gen. Sir C.M. Dobell, and Maj.-Gen Sir H.G. Chauvel then took over Desert Column. On the reorganisation of the E.E.F., in August, 1917 both Eastern Force and Desert Column disappeared, and E.E.F. was reorganized in three Corps – XX, XXI, and Desert Mounted Corps.) 5th Wing R.F.C.; 53rd and 54th Divs., 52nd Div. (in reserve); Desert Column - A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div., Impl. Mtd. Div., and Impl. Camel Bde.; with R. Secs: 10th, 15th, 91st Hy. Bties. (60-pdrs.), 11/ and 12/L.A. Motor Bties., and 7[Light Car Patrol.]

17 - 19 April 1917, SECOND BATTLE OF GAZA

[Eastern Force": 5th Wing R.F.C.; 52nd. 53rd, and 54th Divs., and 74th Div. (in reserve); Desert Column - A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div., Impl. Mtd. Div., and Impl. Camel Bde. ; and 10th, 15th, 91st Hy. Bties. (60-pdrs.), 201st Siege Bty. (6” and 8” Hows.); E Tank Company (8 Tanks - On 9 January 1917, E Tank Ccw. MG Corps (Heavy Branch) - Major N.H. Nutt with 14 officers, 123 other ranks, and 8 tanks (all but 3 being the already obsolete Mk. I type) - disembarked at Alexandria from H.M.T. Euripides and went to A Camp at Gabbari. On 27 January 1917 E Tank Coy. concentrated at Gilban (10 miles W.S.W. of Romani), moved from there on 30 May 1917 by train to Khan Yunis, reached Deir el Belah (4 miles S. of mouth of Wadi el Ghuzze) on 5 April 1917, and on 14 April 1917 the 8 tanks moved forward into the Wadi el Ghuzze. The tanks co-operated in the Second Battle of Gaza - 2 tanks with 163rd Bde. (54th Div.) on 17 April 1917; and on 19 April 1917. 1 tank attacked with 163rd Bde. 154th Div.), 4 tanks with 155th Bde. (52nd Diy ), and 2 tanks with 160th Bde. (53rd Div.). After the Battle E Tank Coy. concentrated at Deir el Belah. On 1 August 1917 E Tank Coy. became Detachment Tank Corps E.E F. (on 27 July 1917) M.G.C. Heavy Branch had become Tank Corp), 11 and 12 L.A. Motor Bties., 17 M.M.G. Bty., and Lt. Car Patrol.]

27 October - 18 November 1917 - THIRD BATTLE OF GAZA.

[Palestine Bde. R.F.C., (5th (Corps) Wing - 14th and 113th Sqdns. and 21st Balloon Coy.; and 40th (Army) Wing - 67th and 111th Sqdns.) D.M.C. (D.M.C. was formed at Abasan (3 miles E. of Khan Yunis) on 12 August 1917. D.M.C. was commanded by Lt.-Gen. Sir H.G. Chauvel and consisted of: Yeomanry, Australian and A. and N.Z. Mounted Divisions, and Imperial Camel Corps Brigade.), XX (XX Corps was formed at Deir el Belah (Palestine) on 2 August 1917) and XXI Corps (XXI Corps was formed at Deir el Belah (Palestine) on 12 August 1917)].

31 October 1917 - Capture of Beersheba.

[XX Corps (53rd, 60th, 74th Divs.). D.M.C. (Aus Mtd. Div.. A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div., 7th Mtd. Bde.) and Impl. Camel Bde.; with Berks. Bty., 10th Mtn. Btv., and XCVI H.A.G.].

1-3 November 1917 - Attack on the Gaza Defences.

[XX Corps (54th Div. and 156th Bde., 52nd Div.); with Detnt. Tank Corps (8 tanks), and XCVH.A.G., and CII H.A.G.s.]

3-7 November 1917 - Capture of Tell Khuweilfe.

[53rd Div. (XX), and A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div.]

6 November 1917 - Capture of the Sheria Position.

[XX Corps (10th, 60th, and 74th Divs.), and Yeo Mtd. Div., and Aus. Mtd. Div.].

8 November 1917 - Huj (10 miles E. of Gaza).

[1/War. Yeo. and 1/[Worc. Yeo. (5th Mtd. Bde. - Aus. Mtd. Div.)].

8 November 1917 - Capture of the Wadi el Hesi Defences.

[52nd Div. (XXI)].

12 November 1917 - Burqa (18 miles N.N.E. of Gaza).

[158th Lade. (52nd Div.-XXI)].

12 November 1917 - El Muggar.

[XXI Corps (52nd and 75th Divs.), D.M.C. (Yeo. Mtd. Div., Aus. Mtd. Div., A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div., 7th Mtd. Bde., Impl. Camel Bde. And 12/L.A.M. Bty.]

13 November 1917 - Occupation of Junction station.

[XXI Corps (52nd and 75th Divs.), D.M.C. (Yeo. Mtd. Div., Aus. Mtd. Div., A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div., 7th Mtd. Bde., Impl. Camel Bde. And 12/L.A.M. Bty.]


17 - 24 November 1917 - Battle of Nabi Samweil.

[Palestine Bde. R.F.C., and XXI Corps (52nd, 60th, 75th Divs.), Yeo. Mtd. Div., 5th Mtd. Bde.]

27 November - 3 December 1917 - Turkish Counter-Attacks in Defence of Jerusalem

[XXI Corps (52nd, 54th, 75th Divs.) until noon 28 November 1917; then XX Corps (52nd, 60th, 74th Divs., Yeo. Mtd. Div., and 7th Mtd. Bde.), and D.M.C. (54th Div., Aus. Mtd. Div., A. & Z. Mtd. Div., and Impl. Camel Bde.)].

27 November 1917 - Defence of Wilhelma (5 miles N.N.E. of Lydda)

[4/North'n. (162nd Bde., 54th Div., attd. to D.M.C.)].

7-9 December 1917 - Capture of Jerusalem.

[Jerusalem surrendered on 9 December 1917; and on 11 December 1917 General Sir E.H.H. Allenby made his official entry, through the Jaffa Gate, into the Holy City.]
[Palestine Bde. R.F.C., XX Corps (60th and 74th Divs., and Mott's. Detnt. - 53rd Div.) and XX Corps Cav.]

20-22 December 1917 - BATTLE OF JAFFA

[XXI Corps (52nd and 54th Divs.); and 1st A.L.H. Bde., and Auckland Mtd. Rif. (A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div.)].

8 p.m. 20 - 21 December 1917 - Passage of the Nahr el 'Auja.

[52nd Div. (XXI)].

20 - 30 December1917 - Defence of Jerusalem.

[XX Corps - 10th, 53rd, 60th, and 74th Divs. and XX Corps Cav.].


In 1918 the Arab Forces in the Hejaz fought the following actions: Fight at et Tafile (25 January 1918 - Arab Forces under Emir Zeid); Capture of Turkish Dead Sea Flotilla, at el Mezra’a (27 January 1918 - Arab Camelry); Shuhim Stn, on Hejaz Rly. (20 April 1918 - Arab Regulars, with R.F.C. and Hejaz A.C. Bty.); Mudarwara Stn., on Hejaz Rly. (6 August 1918 – 2 Cos, Impl Camal Corps from E.E.F.); and Reoccupation of Ma’an (23 September 1918 – Arab Regular Army.).

The Arab Northern Army (Emir Feisal) included : (1) Arab Regular Army (Ja'far Pasha el Askeri) - 1 Bde. Inf. 1 Bn. Mule Inf., 1 Bn. Camel Corps, and 8 guns; with Lt.-Col T.E. Lawrence’s Arab Tribesmen; and Section Indian machine-gunners; (2) British Section (Lt.-Col. P. C. Joyce - Hejaz A.C. Bty. (2, 10-pdrs, and m. guns), 1 Flight of Aeroplanes, R.F.C., 1 Coy. Egyptian Camel Corps (Capt. F.G. Peake); with Tpt, and Labor Corps, and Wireless Stn. At Aqaba; and (3) French Section (Dapt. Pisani) – 2 Mtn. Guns, 4 M.G.s, and 10 auto-rifles.

In March and April, 1918, the Arab Northern Army operated in the Mountains of Moab.


19 - 21 February 1918 - Capture of Jericho.

[XX Corps - 60th Div. and 1st A.L.H. Bde, and N.Z. Mtd. Rif. Bde. (A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div.)].

8 - 12 March 1918 - Tell ‘Asur (9 miles N. of Jerusalem).

[XX Corps - 10th, 53rd, and 74th Divs., and 181st Bde. (60th Div.), and 1st A.L.H. Bde. and Auckland Mtd. Rif. (A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div.); and XXI Corps - 54th and 75th Divs.].

12 March 1918 - Fight at Ras el ‘Ain.

[162nd Bde. (54th Div.)  - XXI Corps].


21 March - 2 April 1918 - First Trans-Jordan Raid

["Shea's Force": (Under Maj.-Gen. J. S. M. Shea, commanding 60th Division.) A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div., lmpl. Camel Bde., L.A.C. Bde., and 60th Div.].

27 - 30 March 1918 - Attack on ‘Amman

["Chaytor's Force": 2nd A.L.H. Bde. and N.Z. Mtd. Rif. Bde. (A. & N.Z. Div.), Impl. Camel Bde., 181st Inf. Bde.,2/17 and 2/18/Lond. of 180th Bde. (60th Div.)j.

11 April 1918 - Turkish Attack on the Jordan Bridgeheads

[A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div., and lmpl. Camel Bde.].

9 - 11 April 1918 - Berukin (20 miles E. of Jaffa)

[XXI Corps - 7th Ind.,( 7th (Meerut) Div. - Maj.-Gen. Sir V.R. Frane arrived in Egypt in January, 1918; and 3rd (Lahore) Div. - Maj.-Gen. A.R. Hoskins - in April, 1918.) 54th, and 75th Divs., and Aus. Ditd. Div.].


30 April - 4 May 1918 - Second Trans-Jordan Raid

[D.M.C. (Chauvel)-Aus. Mtd. Div., A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div., 6th Mtd. Bde., Impl. Service Cav. Bde., 60th Div., and 20th Ind. Bde.].

30 April - 4 May 1918 - Occupation of Es Salt

[Aus. Mtd. Div. (Hodgson) - 3rd A.L.H. Bde., 5th Mtd. Bde.; and 1st A.L.H. and 2nd A.L.H. Bdes. (A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div.) ; with Hong Kong and Singapore Mtn. Bty., and 12th L.A.M. Bty.].

14 July 1918 -  Abu Tulul (Jordan Valley) (7 miles N.W. of Ghoraniye Br.)

[D.M.C.] A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div., 2nd Mtd. Div., and Alwar and Patiala Inf. Bns.].


19 - 25 September 1918 - BATTLES OF MEGIDDO

[Palestine Bde. R.A.F., (R. Air Force (Middle East) - Maj.-Gen. W.G.H. Salmond - Palestine Bde. R.A.F. (Br.-Gen. A. E. Borton): 5th (Corps) Wing - 14th, 113th, 142nd Sqdns; 40th (Army) Wing - 111th, 144th, 145th Sqdns. ; No. 1 Sqdn. Aus. F.C. ; and No. 21 Balloon Coy. On 1 April 1918 R.F.C. and R.N.A.S. amalgamated and formed a separate Service, designated Royal Air Force.) D.M.C., (For these operations D.M.C. (Lt.-Gen. Sir H.G. Chauvel) consisted of: 4th Cav. and 5th Cav. Divs., Aus. Mtd. Div., with Regiment Mixte de Marche de Cavalerie, and XIX R.H.A. (A and B Bties. H.A.C.).) XX and XXI Corps, and "Chaytor's Force".( Maj.-Gen. Sir E. W. C. Chaytor's Force (in Jordan Valley) consisted of: A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div. (with XVIII R.H.A. - Inverness., Ayr., and Somerset. Bties), 20th Ind. Inf. Bde., 38/R.F., 39/R.F., 1/B.W.I., 2/B.W.I., and 75th Bty. R.F.A., 195th Hy. Bty. R.G.A., and 29th and 32nd Ind. Mtn. Bties.)].

19 - 21 September 1918 – BATTLE OF NABLUS.

[XX Corps].

19 - 21 September 1918 - BATTLE OF SHARON.

[XXI Corps and D.M.C.].

20 September 1918 – Capture of Nazareth.

[13th Cav. Bde. (5th Cav. Div.) - D.M.C.].

23 September 1918 - Capture of Haifa.

[15th Cav. Bde. and 1 Sqdn. 1/Sherwood Rgrs. of 14th Cav. Bde. (5th Cav. Div.), and B. Bty., H.A.C. - D.M.C.].

24 September 1918 - Makhadet el Mas’udi (Jordan ford - 11 miles S.S.E. of Beisan)

[11th Cav. Bde. (4th Cav. Div.), (Yeomanry Mid. Div. (Indianized) on 24 April 1918 became 1st Mid, Div. (6th, 8th, and 22nd Mtd. Bdes.); and on 27 July 1918 became 4th Cavalry Div. (10th, 11th, and 12th Cav. Bdes.) under Maj.-Gen. G. de S. Barrow (from 20 June 1917) - with XX R.H.A. Berkes., Hants., and Leicester Bties.). 2nd Mtd. Div., formed in Palestine in May and June, 1918 (5th and 7th Mtd. Bdes., both Indianized, and Impl. Service Cav. Bde. - Jodhpore, Mysore, and Hyderabad I.S. Lancers) under Maj.-Gen. H.J.M. Macandrew (31 May 1918), became 5th Cav. Div, (13th, 14th, and 15th Cav. Bdes.), with Essex Bty. R.H.A. For these operations Notts. Bty., of XIX R.H.A., was attached to 5th Cav. Div..) and Hants. Bty. and 21/M.G. Sqdn. - D.M.C.].

25 September 1918 - Capture of Samakh (E. of Jordan - on S. shore of Sea of Galilee)

[4th A.L.H. Bde. (less 4/A.L.H. and 5 Trps. 12/A.L.H.) of Aus. Mtd. Div.-D.M.C.].


25 September 1918 - Capture of ‘Amman

(On 23 September 1918 Es Salt was occupied by N.Z. Mtd. Rifles Bde, (A. &, N.Z.. Mtd. Div.).)
[A. & N.Z. Mtd. Div. - "Chaytor's Force"].


26 September 1918 - Attack on Irbid (E. of Jordan - 19 miles W.S.W. of Der'a).

[10th Cav. Bde. (4th Cav. Div.) - D.M.C.].

27 September 1918 - Capture of Der’a.

[Taken by Anazeh Tribesmen (Arab Northern Army; and R.A.F., Egyptian Camel Corps, Gurkhas on Camels, 450 Arab Regular Camelry, and Hejaz A.C. Bty, co-operated.].

1 October 1918 - Capture of Damascus.

(Arab Irregulars had entered Damascus by Mn. 30 September 1918. On 3 October 1918 Gen. Sir E. H. H. Allenby and the Emir Feisal made their offical entries into Damascus. The advance since Zero on 19 September 1918 was more than 160 miles.)
[D.M.C.: 4th Cav. Div., 5th Cav. Div., Aus. Mtd. Div., R.M.M.C. (French), 11 and 12/L.A.M. Bties., and 7/Lt. Car Patrol.].

26 October 1918 - Haritan (9 miles N.W. of Citadel, Aleppo).

(After the fall of Damascus the 5th Cav. Div. (Maj.-General Macandrew) opened the pursuit northward on 5 October 1918: occupied Riyaq on 6 October 1918, Baalbek on 11 October 1918, and the leading column (Gen. Macandrew, with Divnl. H.Q., 15th Cav. Bde., and Armoured Cars) reached el Qa'aon on 14 October 1918, and Homs on 16 October 1918. On 20 October 1918, Nos. 2, 11, and 12 L.A.M. Bties. and Nos. 1, 2, and 7 L.C. Patrols joined the leading column, which entered Hama on 21 October 1918, Ma'arret en Numan on 23 October 1918, and Khan Tuman on 25 October 1918. Farther eastward the Arab Northern Army advanced as swiftly. Whilst this energetic and bold pursuit was being undertaken, a final flare-up occurred on 22 October 1918 near Aden at Imad. In this fighting R.A.F., 26/Cav., 7/Hants. (of 43rd Div.), 75/Carnatic Inf., 1105 (H.) Bty. R.F.A. (of 46th Div.), Field Group (15-pdrs.), Malay States Guides Bty., 10-pdr. Section, Mobile Group Hy. Arty., and Aden M.G. Coy. were engaged.)
[15th Cav. Bde., with M.G. Sqdn. and 12/L.A.M. Bty. (5th Cav. Div.).].

10 a.m. 26 October 1918 - Occupation of Aleppo.

(Aleppo had surrendered to Sherifian Troops before Gen. Macandrew with 5th Cav. Div. H.Q. and Armoured Cars entered the City. At 8.30 p.m. on 26 October 1918 the 14th Cav. Bde. reached Aleppo. From Damascus to Aleppo is over 200 miles, Gen. Macandrew's force had covered it in 22 days.)
[5th Cav. Div. H.Q. and Armoured Cars].

Noon 31 October 1918 - Turkey signs Armistice.

When the Armistice with Turkey came into force the general situation of the E.E.F. in Syria was broadly as follows: the 5th Cavalry Division occupied Aleppo and two of its cavalry brigades covered the city to the N.W. and N.E. At the same time the 7th Indian Division had secured the Syrian coast and held Tripoli, whilst the 54th Division had begun to arrive in Beirut.

Owing to sickness, the 4th Cavalry Division halted on reaching Baalbek, and its strongest brigade was drawn back to guard Damascus. The Australian Mtd. Division was then ordered to reinforce the 5th Cavalry Division at Aleppo, and it marched north on the 27th October 1918, but it was still south of Homs (at Hasi) when the news reached it that Turkey was out of the war. The A. & N.Z. Mtd. Division, having captured ‘Amman, was drawn back to Jerusalem; it suffered severely from malaria and influenza, and it was resting near er Ramle at the time of the Armistice.

All Turkish resistance collapsed in the face of that tireless pursuit: opened in the hour of victory on the 19th September it was sustained for forty-eight days. In this time both Damascus and Aleppo had fallen. This resistless advance over nearly 400 miles of enemy territory brought to a fitting end the Campaign in the Holy Land.

Despite the Armistice concluded by Turkey, the Turkish commandant at Medina, (General Fakhri Pasha) refused to surrender the Holy City, and the Arabs settled down to blockade it. In January, 1919 the garrison and city were faced with famine, and, Fakhri becoming ill, his officers surrendered the place to the investing force.

Further Reading:

Battles where Australians Fought

AIF and the EEF


Citation: Egyptian Expeditionary Force, Battles and Engagements

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Wednesday, 20 May 2009 7:38 PM EADT

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