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Saturday, 20 March 2010
Turkish Items, Contents Topic: Tk - Turkish Items
One item greatly missing in Australian scholarship regarding the campaign in Egypt, Gallipoli, Sinai and Palestine are original Turkish sources. Most are difficult to find and inaccessible due to the location and the use of Ottoman Script. Those few that are published in Turkish usually are difficult to obtain. The lack of English translations ensures that these valuable sources are not accessed by most authors. This section attempts to overcome the shortage in some areas.
The Battle of Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, 25 April 1915, Ali Demirel Account Topic: Tk - Turkish Items
The Battle of Anzac Cove
Gallipoli, 25 April 1915
Ali Demirel Account
Ali Demirel from Biga-Gundogdu Village
Ali Demirel from Biga-Gundogdu Village was interviewed in 1981 as part of a Turkish Oral History project. He was a veteran of the 27th Infantry Regiment and on the beach at Anzac when the Australians arrived on 25 April 1915. The original item was first published on the Turkish Website called The Gallipoli Campaign. This is Ali Demirel's story.
Ali Demirel from Biga-Gundogdu Village
I was born in 1885. I am ninety-six years old. I left my village for the war and returned after eight years. I was from the 27th Regiment of Anzac Cove (Ariburnu). Later, I went to Arabian Front. The British took me captive and I have stayed in prison for two years. I was the one who made the famous rifles of the 27th Regiment. I was a carpenter.
I was recruited as a machine-gunner. We were six machine-gunners from the same village.
After I have arrived at Canakkale, they enrolled me as an infantryman. They allotted me to 27th Regiment. Our dispositions were above Anzac Cove. I was in 27th Regiment’s 2nd Battalion, 1st Company. The Regimental commander was Sefik Bey, the Battalion commander was Halil Bey, and Company Commander was Hasan Efendi. I spent nine months on frontline duty.
Our Company’s position was in Kaba Tepe. On the day when the enemy landed, 1st and 3rd Squads were at Maidos. Only we were in the Anzac Cove. Later the 1st and 3rd Squads came. The enemy charged at us. We counter-attacked. All the officers in our regiment were shot. Eyup Sabri of Lapseki took command of the Company. He was a sergeant.
The enemy’s positions were very close. They were bombing our trenches. Later, we protected our trenches with wire. From then on, their bombs failed to reach our trenches.
Before the enemy retreated, they dug a tunnel and filled it with much dynamite. When the mine exploded, we lost a squad. Nobody could have survived. The land has erupted and looked like a minaret. It was horrible.
I have made the rifles of 27th Regiment. As I have told you, I was a carpenter... In fact, I was an infantryman but, because I was a carpenter, I was repairing the rifles. One day, after a raid that we have made against the enemy, we captured a rifle with periscope. There was a tunnel just beside our position. In that tunnel, by looking to the rifle I fixed mirrors to our rifles. They gave each squad one of my rifles. I have fixed two mirrors on the both ends of barrel. Thus, you could see the enemy, without looking out of your trench.
On 18 March, the enemy tried to force the straits, with his battleships. After he failed, he landed his soldiers on the Anzac Cove and then to Kum Kale.
The Hungarian howitzers were very useful. They were heavy and short. They were firing up strait and hitting the battleships. We saw them from the forts. The enemy threw themselves to sea.
When they attacked us, we answered them. I was wounded in my back. Look, I still can not walk. Shrapnel pieces hit me, one side of me was shattered.
When I was wounded, I was sent to Demetoka Hospital. I stayed there for three months. After I have recovered, I returned to my Company. The commander did not allow me to fight. He assigned me to the periscope rifles.
I saw Ataturk in the Anzac Cove. He was with the other commanders. He was a huge man. All the regiments paraded in front of him...
Enver Pasha, the Minister of War came one day. I saw him as well.
As I told you, I was wounded. Then I became ill. They sent me home. I remained home for three months and returned to Canakkale. This time I was allotted to 24th Regiment. We went to Istanbul. They gave us new uniforms and sent us to Arabia, by train. After we passed the mountains, we dis-entrained and walked for seventy days. I could not walk. My legs were already injured in Canakkale. They took me to hospital. During my first month in the hospital, the British attacks began. The shells were hitting the hospital. The tents began to burn. We left five-hundred people in the hospital and ran away.
My regiment was in Jerusalem. I went there as well. Somewhere around Jerusalem, there was Sultan Abdul Hamid’s palace. We converted the palace into a hospital, but the British attacked again. The Germans built a bridge on the river and we withdrew by using that bridge. We retreated through Sam. However, Sam was under siege. They took fifty of us captives. There was such a famine in Sam. No bread, no food. I was clever, there was bread in the pantry of the hospital, and I filled sacks with bread and gave it to people. Later, the British brought bread. The people mobbed the bread.
The British has divided us into convoys of thousands. We have walked for eight days and arrived at Egypt. There were twelve sections enclosed by wire. I was in the fourth section, where I have stayed for two years.
It was in our first days; a lame British officer came. He was walking with a stick. We were standing. He had a translator. The translator shouted:
“Is there anybody from the 27th Regiment?”
I thought to myself that they cannot kill me and stepped forward.
“I am,” I said.
The lame officer came nearby; he kissed my hands and eyes. I think he was the commander of the captives. God knows; he made me comfortable. He gave a private tent to me. Moreover, he said, “take two friends of yours.”
Later I have learnt that he was wounded in the Anzac Cove. He was so scared. The translator told that the British were very frightened because they thought the Turks would kill all of them. Anyway, he paid me twenty pounds salary every month. He also gave me eighty boxes of cigarettes every week. He told me “sell them and make money.”
He came to my tent very often. I made him a chest out of German screens and coated it with velvet, like a Turkish dowry chest. Also, I have made him two pairs of half boots by tearing the British boots. All of them were hand made. I even fixed the nails using my hands. He gave me two Ottoman golden coins. He has written, “Made by the prisoners” on the chest and taken to Britain. He talked rarely.
Until one thousand prisoners remained, he did not release me. Later, we came to Istanbul. Then I have returned to my village.
In the prison, we were eating horsemeat. The British gave us lamb only once.
I was married before I joined the army. When I came back, I found my wife had died. I have remarried. My second wife has passed away thirteen years ago. I have three children. All are alive. My son is taking care of me. I have neither a medal nor a pension. One of my grandsons is an officer in Izmir.
The Battle of Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, 25 April 1915, Halil Koc Account Topic: Tk - Turkish Items
The Battle of Anzac Cove
Gallipoli, 25 April 1915
Halil Koc Account
Halil Koc from Canakkale-Haliloglu village was interviewed in 1981 as part of a Turkish Oral History project. He was a veteran of the 27th Infantry Regiment and on the beach at Anzac when the Australians arrived on 25 April 1915. The original item was first published on the Turkish Website called The Gallipoli Campaign. This is Ali Demirel's story.
Halil Koc from Canakkale-Haliloglu village
I was born in 1893. I am eighty-eight years old. I have fought in the Anzac Cove, Mus Front and Aleppo. At first, we were in Eceabat. Then we went to Gaba Tepe. The British ships came to Gaba Tepe. They left floats. Our men picked those floats. It was one week later the British came again. I was on my turn. It was towards morning. Whole Imbros was burning. I called the sergeants and officers. They all came.
The British began landings. Their battleships were on the sea. There were thousands of men landing on the Anzac Cove. My division was in Anzac Cove. I was on Gaba Tepe. We were looking down. We had four batteries. Our gunners were firing on them. I have seen many barges sunk during the landings. We have stayed on that slope for two or three days and then they have taken us.
They have commanded us to attack at 9 o’clock to Kanli Sirt (Quinn’s Post). As we arrived at Kanli Sirt, we saw thousands of dead men. We slipped down through them. We could see the enemy bayonets in their position. We were shooting to their trenches. All my friends had died there. Only I have remained. I thought, “I am going to be shot as well.” In that moment, probably I raised my head. Then a stone hit my head. It was my captain. He came and said, “if you can manage, just go.” I have left my rifle. The other soldiers helped me to go. I left. I have learnt that, the thing hit my head has not a stone but a piece of shrapnel. I was taken to Demetoka Hospital, in Biga. They had taken out that shrapnel piece. It has been sixty years. I stayed in the hospital for a month.
I have returned to Anzac Cove. I fought there for eight months. I was in the forts. The British dug tunnels, fired the trenches. Nothing happened to me.
We made many attacks. They were taking us out and commanding “Attack!”; “Bayonet Combat!”. We were fixing the bayonets the enemy positions were just twenty steps forward. Before you arrived at their trenches, they kill you. Where you could go? Enver Pasha commanded us to attack. He came there. I have seen him. He was the Minister of War.
In the Anzac Cove, Sefik Bey was our commander. He led us for nine months. There was also Major Kemal Bey. He has died soon. I was with the infantry. I was from 27th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Platoon, 9th Squad. I had a German Mauser rifle.
The enemy later landed on Suvla. We did not go there. Although the enemy assaulted us from all sides, they could pass. We hindered. I have stayed there for nine months.
One night, they have sent a friend of mine and me for reconnaissance... It was a very dark night. We went to enemy’s trenches. We listened to them... They language was like gibberish... While we were returning, we stepped on a dead body. His flask made a noise. With that noise the enemy began to fire on us. We could not have escaped. We found a shell hole and hid in it. Four or five hours later we could leave the hole. We could not find the position of 27th Regiment. We went on deployment with the 72nd Regiment. The enemy evacuated that night. We stayed there four more days and then they sent us to Kirklareli. I have gone to Eastern Front to fight against the Russians.
In Diyarbakir new forces were formed. I was drafted into 24th Regiment’s 3rd Division. Our commander was Suleyman Bey. We have arrived at Mus front. We took our positions. There were Russians against us. First they have attacked on us; next, we marched on them. We defeated them. It was a very hard war. As the Russian drew back, we followed them. In Mus, I volunteered as a machine gunner.
Hunger... Hunger... That was all... We ate the leather of our sandals. We ate what we have found. Horsemeat... Don’t ask dead or alive... We were taking fodder of the animals and eating it. There was nothing... What else could we eat?
There was an officer... Zeki Efendi. He was hungry. Everybody was starving. He said: “Give me some fodder.” He ate... His rank was lieutenant.
I was married before I went to the war. My wife is alive. Her name is Esma. I had two daughters and a son. One of my daughters has died. I have six grandchildren. My health is okay. I have neither a medal nor a salary.
Bir el Abd, Sinai, 9 August 1916, Official Turkish Account Topic: Tk - Turkish Items
Bir el Abd
Sinai, 9 August 1916
Official Turkish Account
The following extract from the Birinci Dunya Harbinde Turk Harbi, IV. cilt, 1 nci Kisim Sina-Filistin Cephesi (Turkish War in WW1, Vol. 4, Part 1, Sinai Palatine Front) was kindly translated by the Turkish author, Tosun Saral.
Birinci Dunya Harbinde Turk Harbi, IV. cilt, 1 nci Kisim Sina-Filistin Cephesi (Turkish War in WW1, Vol. 4, Part 1, Sinai Palatine Front), pp. 387 – 388.
[Note: Turkish military records use Bîrülabd rather than Bir el Abd.]
The High Command of 1st Expeditory Forces gave the following order for withdrawal to “ Bîrülabd-Bîribayut line in the night of August 7/8 at 18:30.
[Note: The original of the document is held by the Military History and Study Department archive. (As.T. ve Str. E. Bşk= Askerî Tarih ve Stratejik Etüd Başkanlığı) As.T. ve Str. E. Bşk.Arş. 6/8056, Kls. 4770, Dos. 12, Fih.4 and Kls. 4775, Dos. H-10, Fih. 1-94.]
“1- Strong enemy forces are on Errabah – Katya - Bîrihamizah line. English outposts approached towards east direction to our trenches. Strong cavalry units of the enemy are present around Hodelbudarem and Magaybra.
2- Expeditory Forces will be withdrawn on the night August 7/8 (tonight) to Bîrülabd – Hodumvayhelhilm - Bîribayut line.
1st Group will withdraw to Bîrülabd on the north of Hodebugarab – Hodelfatr - Hodelbada line;
2nd Group will withdraw to north of Hodumvayhelhilm and South of Hodebugarab – Hodelfatr - Hodelbada line,
3rd Group (Mülman detachment) will withdraw over Hodumvayhelhilm to Hodelvillage. As soon as the darkness falls the artillary will change its position and move back.
However if the the group commanders has the possibility they might withdraw their units in parties or step by step after midday beginning from 1700.
The infantry will withdraw after the complete withdrawal of artillary in exteme silence, calm and quiet leaving behind a large front and strong rearguards. It is a matter of honour for the infanry to secure the withdrawal of artillary without any losses. If there is a delay at the movement of the artillary, the infantry will hold a new front until the movement begins.
The HQ of the 1st Expeditory Forces will start to move to Bîrülabd after the fall of darkness. All the raports will be sent to Hodelhilva till 2100 and later to Bîrülabd. With dawn an orderly officer from all groups will be ready for orders at the HQ of Expeditory Forces.”
On the other hand on August 7th artillary battles which increased its violence now and then, happened at the Turkish right flank and central. In this fire battle of the artillary the Austo-Hungarian mountain obüs (howitzer) battaries distinquished with exellent fire. The situation for 3rd Group (Mülman detachment) at left wing has became serious for a short time. The Smith group (1½ brigades) of the English which had great mobility, turned round the 3rd Turkish group. For that reason 3rd group was forced to fight that afternoon with its front towards east. The skill, endurance and solidity of this Group is praiseworthy. At the end, the commander of the Expeditory Forces ordered Major Mülman to withdraw his group to Hodumvayhelhilm after the darkness fell. He also forwarded to Hodumvayhelhilm an infantry battalion under command of major Mayer to lighten Müller’s burden and to built a defence line. That night great majority of the Expeditory Forces withdrew to Bîrülabd- Hodumvayhelhilm - Bîribayut line.
Acknowledgement: Many thanks are given to the translator, Tosun Saral, who is the author of the following works: Vatan Nasil Kurtarildi (How Fatherland Was saved), Macarlar ve Tuna Hakkinda Yazilmis Siirler 1300-2000 (Poems About Hungarians and Danube written by Turks between the Years 1300-2000), Gul Baba ve Masallari (Gul Baba and His Tales), and Buyuk Ustad Sehit Faik Pasa, adigar-i Macaristan asr-i Abdulhamid Han (Memories from Hungary During The Reign Of Sultan Abdulhamid Han).
Bir el Abd, Sinai, 9 August 1916, Official Turkish Account Map Topic: Tk - Turkish Items
Romani and Bir el Abd
Sinai, 4 - 9 August 1916
Official Turkish Account Map
Birinci Dunya Harbinde Turk Harbi, IV. cilt, 1 nci Kisim Sina-Filistin Cephesi (Turkish War in WW1, Vol. 4, Part 1, Sinai Palatine Front), Map 27
[Click on map for larger version.]
The above map was extracted from the Birinci Dunya Harbinde Turk Harbi, IV. cilt, 1 nci Kisim Sina-Filistin Cephesi (Turkish War in WW1, Vol. 4, Part 1, Sinai Palatine Front), Map 27. The map illustrates the chronology of the action detailing the course of action, locations and the order of battle of the 1st Canal Expeditionary force.
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