Make your own free website on Tripod.com
« May 2017 »
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
28 29 30 31
You are not logged in. Log in


Search the site:


powered by FreeFind
Volunteer with us.

Entries by Topic All topics
A Latest Site News
A - Using the Site
AAA Volunteers
AAB-Education Centre
AAC-Film Clips
AAC-Photo Albums
AIF & MEF & EEF
AIF - Lighthorse
AIF - ALH - A to Z
AIF - DMC
AIF - DMC - Or Bat
AIF - DMC - Anzac MD
AIF - DMC - Aus MD
AIF - DMC - British
AIF - DMC - BWI
AIF - DMC - French
AIF - DMC - Indian
AIF - DMC - Italian
AIF - DMC - Medical
AIF - DMC - Remounts
AIF - DMC - Scouts
AIF - DMC - Sigs
AIF - DMC - Sigs AirlnS
AIF - DMC - 1 Sig Sqn
AIF - DMC - 2 Sig Sqn
AIF - DMC - Eng
AIF - DMC - Eng 1FSE
AIF - DMC - Eng 2FSE
AIF - DMC - GSR
AIF - 1B - 1 LHB
AIF - 1B - 6 MVS
AIF - 1B - 1 LHMGS
AIF - 1B - 1 Sig Trp
AIF - 1B - 1 LHFA
AIF - 1B - 1 LHR
AIF - 1B - 2 LHR
AIF - 1B - 3 LHR
AIF - 2B - 2 LHB
AIF - 2B - 7 MVS
AIF - 2B - 2 LHFA
AIF - 2B - 2 LHMGS
AIF - 2B - 2 Sig Trp
AIF - 2B - 5 LHR
AIF - 2B - 6 LHR
AIF - 2B - 7 LHR
AIF - 3B - 3 LHB
AIF - 3B - 8 MVS
AIF - 3B - 3 LHB Sigs
AIF - 3B - 3 LHFA
AIF - 3B - 3 LHMGS
AIF - 3B - 3 Sig Trp
AIF - 3B - 8 LHR
AIF - 3B - 9 LHR
AIF - 3B - 10 LHR
AIF - 4B - 4 LHB
AIF - 4B - 4 Sig Trp
AIF - 4B - 9 MVS
AIF - 4B - 4 LHFA
AIF - 4B - 4 LHMGS
AIF - 4B - 4 LHR
AIF - 4B - 11 LHR
AIF - 4B - 12 LHR
AIF - 5B - 5 LHB
AIF - 5B - 10 MVS
AIF - 5B - 5 LHFA
AIF - 5B - 5 Sig Trp
AIF - 5B - ICC
AIF - 5B - 14 LHR
AIF - 5B - 15 LHR
AIF - 5B - 1er Regt
AIF - 5B - 2 NZMGS
AIF - AASC
AIF - Aboriginal LH
AIF - Badges
AIF - Cars
AIF - Chinese LH
AIF - Double Sqns
AIF - Engineers
AIF - Fr - 22 Corps
AIF - Fr - 13 LHR
AIF - Honour Roll
AIF - HQ - 3rd Echelon
AIF - Marching Songs
AIF - Misc Topics
AIF - NZMRB
AIF - NZMRB - AMR
AIF - NZMRB - CMR
AIF - NZMRB - EFT
AIF - NZMRB - NZMFA
AIF - NZMRB - NZMGS
AIF - NZMRB - OMR
AIF - NZMRB - Sig-Trp
AIF - NZMRB - WMR
AIF - Ships
AIF - Ships - Encountr
AIF - Ships - Una
AIF - WFF
AIF - Wireless Sqn
Battles
BatzA - Australia
BatzA - Broken Hill
BatzA - Liverpool
BatzA - Merivale
BatzB - Boer War
BatzB - Bakenlaagte
BatzB - Belmont
BatzB - Bothaville
BatzB - Buffels Hoek
BatzB - Coetzees Drift
BatzB - Diamond Hill
BatzB - Driefontein
BatzB - Elands
BatzB - Graspan
BatzB - Grobelaar
BatzB - Grootvallier
BatzB - Hartebestfontn
BatzB - Houtnek
BatzB - Karee Siding
BatzB - Kimberley
BatzB - Koster River
BatzB - Leeuw Kop
BatzB - Mafeking
BatzB - Magersfontein
BatzB - Modder River
BatzB - Onverwacht
BatzB - Paardeberg
BatzB - Palmietfontein
BatzB - Pink Hill
BatzB - Poplar Grove
BatzB - Rhenoster
BatzB - Sannahs Post
BatzB - Slingersfontn
BatzB - Stinkhoutbm
BatzB - Sunnyside
BatzB - Wilmansrust
BatzB - Wolvekuil
BatzB - Zand River
BatzG - Gallipoli
BatzG - Anzac
BatzG - Aug 1915
BatzG - Baby 700
BatzG - Evacuation
BatzG - Hill 60
BatzG - Hill 971
BatzG - Krithia
BatzG - Lone Pine
BatzG - Nek
BatzJ - Jordan Valley
BatzJ - 1st Amman
BatzJ - 2nd Amman
BatzJ - Abu Tellul
BatzJ - Es Salt
BatzJ - JV Maps
BatzJ - Ziza
BatzM - Mespot
BatzM - Baghdad
BatzM - Ctesiphon
BatzM - Daur
BatzM - Kurna
BatzM - Kut el Amara
BatzM - Ramadi
BatzN - Naval
BatzN - AE1
BatzN - Cocos Is
BatzN - Heligoland
BatzN - Marmara
BatzN - Zeebrugge
BatzN - Zeppelin L43
BatzNG - Bitapaka
BatzO - Other
BatzO - Baku
BatzO - Egypt 1919
BatzO - Emptsa
BatzO - Karawaran
BatzO - Peitang
BatzO - Wassa
BatzP - Palestine
BatzP - 1st Gaza
BatzP - 2nd Gaza
BatzP - 3rd Gaza
BatzP - Aleppo
BatzP - Amwas
BatzP - Ayun Kara
BatzP - Bald Hill
BatzP - Balin
BatzP - Beersheba
BatzP - Berkusieh
BatzP - Damascus
BatzP - El Auja
BatzP - El Buggar
BatzP - El Burj
BatzP - Haifa
BatzP - Huj
BatzP - JB Yakub
BatzP - Kaukab
BatzP - Khan Kusseir
BatzP - Khuweilfe
BatzP - Kuneitra
BatzP - Megiddo
BatzP - Nablus
BatzP - Rafa
BatzP - Sasa
BatzP - Semakh
BatzP - Sheria
BatzP - Surafend
BatzP - Wadi Fara
BatzS - Sinai
BatzS - Bir el Abd
BatzS - El Arish
BatzS - El Mazar
BatzS - El Qatiya
BatzS - Jifjafa
BatzS - Magdhaba
BatzS - Maghara
BatzS - Romani
BatzS - Suez 1915
BatzSe - Senussi
BatzWF - Westn Front
BW - Boer War
BW - NSW
BW - NSW - 1ACH
BW - NSW - 1NSWMR
BW - NSW - 2NSWMR
BW - NSW - 3ACH
BW - NSW - 3NSWIB
BW - NSW - 3NSWMR
BW - NSW - 5ACH
BW - NSW - A Bty RAA
BW - NSW - AAMC
BW - NSW - Aust H
BW - NSW - Lancers
BW - NSW - NSW Inf
BW - NSW - NSWCBC
BW - NSW - NSWIB
BW - NSW - NSWMR_A
BW - NZ
BW - Qld
BW - Qld - 1ACH
BW - Qld - 1QMI
BW - Qld - 2QMI
BW - Qld - 3ACH
BW - Qld - 3QMI
BW - Qld - 4QIB
BW - Qld - 5QIB
BW - Qld - 6QIB
BW - Qld - 7ACH
BW - QLD - AAMC
BW - SA
BW - SA - 1SAMR
BW - SA - 2ACH
BW - SA - 2SAMR
BW - SA - 3SACB
BW - SA - 4ACH
BW - SA - 4SAIB
BW - SA - 5SAIB
BW - SA - 6SAIB
BW - SA - 8ACH
BW - SA - AAMC
BW - Tas
BW - Tas - 1ACH
BW - Tas - 1TIB
BW - Tas - 1TMI
BW - Tas - 2TB
BW - Tas - 2TIB
BW - Tas - 3ACH
BW - Tas - 8ACH
BW - Vic
BW - Vic - 1VMI
BW - Vic - 2ACH
BW - Vic - 2VMR
BW - Vic - 3VB
BW - Vic - 4ACH
BW - Vic - 4VIB
BW - Vic - 5VMR
BW - Vic - 6ACH
BW - Vic - AAMC
BW - Vic - Scot H
BW - WA
BW - WA - 1WAMI
BW - WA - 2ACH
BW - WA - 2WAMI
BW - WA - 3WAB
BW - WA - 4ACH
BW - WA - 4WAMI
BW - WA - 5WAMI
BW - WA - 6WAMI
BW - WA - 8ACH
BW Gen - Campaign
BW Gen - Soldiers
BW General
Cavalry - General
Diary - Schramm
Egypt - Heliopolis
Egypt - Mena
Gen - Ataturk Pk, CNB
Gen - Australia
Gen - Legends
Gen - Query Club
Gen - St - NSW
Gen - St - Qld
Gen - St - SA
Gen - St - Tas
Gen - St - Vic
Gen - St - WA
Gm - German Items
Gm - Bk - 605 MGC
GW - 11 Nov 1918
GW - Atrocities
GW - August 1914
GW - Biographies
GW - Propaganda
GW - Spies
GW - We forgot
Militia 1899-1920
Militia - Area Officers
Militia - Inf - Infantry
Militia - Inf - 1IB
Militia - Inf - 2IB
Militia - Inf - 3IB
Militia - Inf - NSW
Militia - Inf - Qld
Militia - Inf - SA
Militia - Inf - Tas
Militia - Inf - Vic
Militia - Inf - WA
Militia - K.E.Horse
Militia - LH
Militia - LH - Regts
Militia - LH - 1LHB
Militia - LH - 2LHB
Militia - LH - 3LHB
Militia - LH - 4LHB
Militia - LH - 5LHB
Militia - LH - 6LHB
Militia - LHN - NSW
Militia - LHN - 1/7/1
Militia - LHN - 2/9/6
Militia - LHN - 3/11/7
Militia - LHN - 4/6/16
Militia - LHN - 5/4/15
Militia - LHN - 6/5/12
Militia - LHN - 28
Militia - LHQ - Qld
Militia - LHQ - 13/2
Militia - LHQ - 14/3/11
Militia - LHQ - 15/1/5
Militia - LHQ - 27/14
Militia - LHS - SA
Militia - LHS - 16/22/3
Militia - LHS - 17/23/18
Militia - LHS - 24/9
Militia - LHT - Tas
Militia - LHT - 12/26
Militia - LHV - Vic
Militia - LHV - 7/15/20
Militia - LHV - 8/16/8
Militia - LHV - 9/19
Militia - LHV - 10/13
Militia - LHV - 11/20/4
Militia - LHV - 19/17
Militia - LHV - 29
Militia - LHW - WA
Militia - LHW-18/25/10
Militia - Military Orders
Militia - Misc
MilitiaRC - Rifle Clubs
MilitiaRC - NSW
MilitiaRC - NT
MilitiaRC - Qld
MilitiaRC - SA
MilitiaRC - Tas
MilitiaRC - Vic
MilitiaRC - WA
Militiaz - New Zealand
Tk - Turkish Items
Tk - Army  
Tk - Bks - Books
Tk - Bks - 1/33IR
Tk - Bks - 27th IR
Tk - Bks - Air Force
Tk - Bks - Yildirim
Tk - POWs
Wp - Weapons
Wp - Hotchkiss Cav
Wp - Hotchkiss PMG
Blog Tools
Edit your Blog
Build a Blog
RSS Feed
View Profile
Open Community
Post to this Blog
Site Index
Education Centre
LH Militia
Boer War
Transport Ships
LH Battles
ALH - Units
ALH - General
Aboriginal Light H
Weapons
Ottoman Sources

"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre aims to present an accurate history as chroniclers of early Australian military developments from 1899 to 1920.

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre site holds over 12,000 entries and is growing daily.

Contact: Australian Light Horse Studies Centre

Let us hear your story: You can tell your story, make a comment or ask for help on our Australian Light Horse Studies Centre Forum called:

Desert Column Forum

WARNING: This site contains: names, information and images of deceased people; and, language which may be considered inappropriate today.

Thursday, 14 October 2010
The Ottoman Empire during the Great War, The Ottoman Army, Contents
Topic: Tk - Army

The Ottoman Empire during the Great War

The Ottoman Army

Contents 

 

Items

The Ottoman Army

Outline of Infantry Structure 

 

Gallipoli

Lieut Col Sefik Aker, Canakkale - Ariburnu savaslari ve 27 alay (The Dardanelles - The Ariburnu Battles and the 27th Regiment)

Turkish OC of 1/33 IR diary up until his death, 30 April 1915

Yildirim

Yildirim

Air Force

The Ottoman Air Force in the Sinai and Palestine

Specialist Units

Storm Troopers

Turkish Army, Hücüm Müfrezesi - Storm Troopers

 

Rolls of Honour

The Battle of Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, 25 April 1915, Turkish Roll of Honour 

The Battle of Krithia, Gallipoli, 8 May 1915, Turkish Roll of Honour

Turkish, Nek, Roll of Honour, 7 August 1915

Lest We Forget

 

Further Reading

The Ottoman Empire during the Great War, The Ottoman Army

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: The Ottoman Empire during the Great War, The Ottoman Army, Contents


Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Thursday, 14 October 2010 8:01 AM EADT
Monday, 4 October 2010
The Ottoman Empire during the Great War, The Ottoman Army, Outline of Infantry Structure
Topic: Tk - Army

The Ottoman Empire during the Great War

The Ottoman Army

Outline of Infantry Structure

 

When reading about the various parts of a Turkish Infantry unit, the following terms relating to specific formations are employed:

  • Rifleman
  • Serviceman’s name
  • Recruitment
  • Battalion Service Number
  • Section
  • Squad
  • Platoon
  • Company
  • Battalion
  • Regiment
  • Division
  • Corps
  • Army

Each of these specific units will be examined in terms of ideal composition and role.

 

The full service uniform of the ordinary Mehmet in the Ottoman Army.

 

Rifleman

The individual Rifleman was the most basic part of the Turkish infantry. It is from the Rifleman which all other soldierly functions stem. Though by tradition certain infantry units are based on the rifleman, they employ a variety of other specialized soldiers in conjunction with the rifleman.

All Riflemen were armed with the 7.65 mm Mauser rifle of the 1903 pattern and short bayonet. Officers were armed with a sword and revolver. The sword was rarely carried into action.

Khaki service dress was adopted for infantry use. The service jacket was single breasted with a pleat in the back and four flap pockets. Officers collars were olive green while the rank and file of ordinary line battalions had plain collars. Trousers were plain for the men although officers had red piping. Greatcoats were grey, double breasted with collars or collar patches of the same colour as the service jacket. Boots were brown ankle lace up with khaki coloured puttees. The cap was a khaki kabalak with a distinctive top or dome the same colour as the coat collars. Also popular amongst those troops in the desert was the Kefiye, similar to the Arab headdress.

 

Serviceman’s name

Until the family name reform of 1927 when everyone was compelled to take a surname, the individual was known by his personal name or sometimes a nickname. Further identification was added by including the name of the soldier’s father to the record.

 

Top 10 Turkish Personal Names

 

Name% Used
Mehmet 13.15%
Mustafa 7.94%
Ali 7.60%
Ahmet 6.98%
Hasan 5.98%
Hüseyin 5.90%
Ibrahim 4.18%
Ismail 4.09%
Halil 3.69%
Osman3.46%
Total62.96%

 

The figures were obtained from the work Sehitlerimiz which was the Turkish equivalent to the Turkish Roll of Honour. The specific campaign was that of Gallipoli, a roll which contained 45,487 names. Because of the random nature for entry selection, Sehitlerimiz provides an excellent sample of the general population within the Turkish Army during the Great War. This explains why the common soldier gained the name "Mehmet" in the same way as calling the ordinary British soldier "Tommy" or the Australian Light Horseman called "Billjim".

With the example of the Australian Light Horse, some 15% of men had the name Bill. Without any other distinguishing feature, if this were the only name employed, the chaos it would create would be immense. Hence the surname was important. But when there is no surname, other conventions were used by the Turks. A nickname became very important. With the Australians, a person might be referred to as "Bluey" rather than his first name or surname. Similarly with the Turks although a far more formal thing as the sobriquet, if known, was part of the man's formal identification.

Here are some examples:

HÜSEYİN, also known as SARIALİ OĞULLARI (SARIALİ SONS), the son of OSMAN

ALİ, also known as KARA KULAK OĞULLARI (BLACK EAR'S SONS), the son of İSMAİL

OSMAN, also known as YÜZBAŞI OĞULLARI (CAPTAIN'S SONS), the son of HACI MEHMET ALİ

AHMET, also known as HASANBEY OĞULLARINDAN (SEIGNIOR HASAN'S SONS), the son of MEHMET

HÜSEYİN, also known as ABİDİN OĞULLARI (ABİDİN SONS), the son of HALİL

 

Recruitment

Soldiers were enlisted in a particular military recruitment district. At the headquarters of the military district a roll was maintained of all soldiers recruited. It was here that all aspects of the soldier’s service was administered. On this roll was attached all correspondence regarding the soldier and any other notifications such as wounding or death. It is only at these places do we have the records of the individual soldiers. After the fragmentation of the Ottoman Empire, rolls in other districts were destroyed or became inaccessible.

The following is a list of military districts for Anatolia during the Great War:

Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingöl, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Çankiri, Çanakkale, Çorum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elaziğ, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gümüşhane, Hatay, Içel, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaraş, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirşehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kütahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Muğla, Muş, Nevşehir, Niğde, Ordu, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Siirt, Sinop, Sivas, Tekirdağ, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Urfa, Uşak, Van, Yozgat, and Zonguldak.

 

Battalion Service Number

Turkish serviceman numbers were based solely upon the Battalion in which they were first recruited. Units were locally raised and service numbers were peculiar to that battalion rather than to the military service. So upon joining an Infantry Battalion, the recruit was allocated a number specific to that unit. If the person transferred to another battalion, the service number remained unchanged. The result was that in many situations, men held identical service numbers.

 

Section

The formation which the individual rifleman most associated was the Section. This was a distinct body composed of four riflemen. Leading this section was usually a senior private or a corporal. This was a tight knit group which worked together as a single unit.

 

Squad

Two sections were joined together to form a Squad under the leadership of a corporal or sergeant. The consequent nominal strength of a Squad was nine riflemen.

 

Platoon

Nine squads formed the Platoon which was under the leadership of a lieutenant or second lieutenant. The nominal strength of a Platoon was 73 riflemen.

 

Company

Under the command of a Captain, a Company was made up of three Platoons plus the supporting personnel. The nominal war strength of a Company was 265 men while the peace strength was 123 men.

Company Establishment Strength

Rank Peace War
Captain11
Lieutenant11
Second Lieutenants22
Sergeant Major11
Assistant Sergeant Major11
Sergeants36
Musketry Sergeant11
Musketry Corporal11
Ambulance11
Stretcher Bearers04
Corporals918
Quartermaster Corporal11
Batmen33
Buglers44
Tailor11
Cobbler11
Water Carrier11
Cook11
Other Ranks90216
Total123265
Water Cart and Horse11

 

The above, of course was the ideal composition. The reality under war conditions was quite different. Those divisions that faced the Russians in the Caucuses had their battalions reduced to company strength with the divisions being renamed regiments. Similarly the reduction in Battalion strength on the Palestinian Front gave similar results. On paper, a force may have looked imposing but in reality, it had little strength.

 

Battalion

The standard Turkish infantry battalion was meant to have a war establishment of 1,080 men. This consisted of four Companies totalling some 1,060 men and Battalion Headquarters which added a further 20 men. One addition to the war time establishment of a battalion but not counted in its establishment was a transport section consisting of a sergeant and 25 drivers making 1,106 men per Battalion.

Battalion Staff
Rank Peace War
Major11
Lieutenant - Aide de camp11
Medical Officer11
Surgeon11
Chemist11
Imam11
Adjutant11
Armourer11
Staff Sergeant Major11
Staff Sergeant11
Battalion Quartermaster Sergeant11
Battalion Quartermaster Corporal11
Sergeant Bugler11
Corporal Bugler22
Batmen55
Transport Sergeant01
Driver025
Total2046

 

Regiment

The Turkish Infantry Regiment was comparable to the Australian Infantry Brigade. It comprised three Infantry Battalions, one Machine Gun Company and Regimental Headquarters.

Regiment Headquarters
Rank Peace War
Colonel11
Lieutenant - Aide de camp11
Adjutant11
Imam11
Colour Sergeant11
Staff Sergeant11
Clerk (Private) 11
Orderly Sergeant11
Batmen44
Total1212

 

The armament of the Machine Gun Company, they were either armed with the heavy Maxim guns or the lighter Hotchkiss gun, determined the establishment number of men in a Regiment. If a Maxim Gun Company of 160 men, then the total number on establishment would be 3,490 men while the Hotchkiss Machine Gun Company of 123 men would mean the establishment of the Infantry Regiment was 3,453 men.

 

Division

A Division contains sufficient material and men to allow the formation to undertake combat actions without reference to any other unit. It is usually called an independent command. All the military services were available within the Division. The core of the Division’s combat ability was provided by three Infantry Regiments. The key function of the division was logistical support of the Infantry Regiments as well as planning support when combat is offered.

The following outlines the wartime establishment of a Turkish Infantry Division.

9 Infantry Battalions of 1,106 men 9,954
3 Machine Gun Companies of average 142 men 426
6 Artillery Batteries of average 173 men 1,038
Sanitary Company, Transport Company and other supports 550
Total 11,968

 

There were some 63 Infantry Divisions formed by Turkey during the Great War. While this appears to be a great number, the reality was entirely different. After its high point in 1916, the Turkish Army was unable to maintain the troop levels in the Divisions as allowed by their establishment. In Palestine, Infantry Divisions were usually at the strength of an Infantry Regiment.

 

Corps

A Corps was a major military organisation which consisted of a minimum of two divisions. As the Infantry Corps were degraded through combat in the Sinai and Palestine, they were unable to present a force of more than 5,000 rifles on most occasions.

 

Army

An Army, in the formation sense, is composed of a minimum of two Corps. By 1918, the Armies in Palestine were at the manning levels of one fully established Infantry Division.

 

Source: Intelligence Section, Cairo, Handbook of the Turkish Army, 8th Provisional Edition, Government Press, Cairo, February 1916.

 

Further Reading:

The Ottoman Empire during the Great War, The Ottoman Army

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: The Ottoman Empire during the Great War, The Ottoman Army, Outline of Infantry Structure

Posted by Project Leader at 10:28 PM EADT
Updated: Wednesday, 13 October 2010 9:30 AM EADT
Friday, 7 August 2009
Turkish, Nek, Roll of Honour, 7 August 1915
Topic: Tk - Army

The Nek

Gallipoli, 7 August 1915

Roll of Honour

Turkish
 

Çanakkale Martyr's Memorial
 
[Photo by Jll.]

 

The Roll of Honour contains the names of all the men known to have served at one time with the 18th Infantry Regiment and gave their lives in service of the Ottoman Empire on 7 August 1915. The names are compiled from the Turkish Book of Martyrs commonly known as Sehitlerimiz

 

Roll of Honour

 

490 Private Ali Osman son of MEHMET, 3rd Battalion, 18th Regiment.

 

346 Private Halil son of ÖMER, 2nd Battalion, 18th Regiment.

 

787 Private Ismail son of MUSTAFA, 2nd Battalion, 18th Regiment

 

2966 Private Mehmet son of HAMDI, 3rd Battalion, 18th Regiment.

178 Private Mehmet son of HASAN, 2nd Battalion, 18th Regiment.

179 Private Mehmet son of HASAN, 2nd Battalion, 18th Regiment.
2966 Private Mehmet son of HAMDI, 3rd Battalion, 18th Regiment
1571 Private Mustafa son of HÜSEYIN, 2nd Battalion, 18th Regiment.

2776 Private Mustafa son of HÜSEYIN, 2nd Battalion, 18th Regiment.
1457 Private Mustafa son of MEHMET, 3rd Battalion, 18th Regiment.
 
2235 Private Osman son of MEHMET, 2nd Battalion, 18th Regiment.
 
1233 Private Süleyman son of HASAN, 2nd Battalion, 18th Regiment.
 
1060 Private Yakup son of HÜSEYIN, 3rd Battalion, 18th Regiment. 

 

Lest we forget

 

Further Reading:

Turkish Army

The Nek, Gallipoli, 7 August 1915

Gallipoli Campaign

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: Turkish, Nek, Roll of Honour, 7 August 1915

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Tuesday, 13 October 2009 10:07 AM EADT
Wednesday, 15 July 2009
Turkish Army, Hucum Mufrezesi - Storm Troopers
Topic: Tk - Army

Turkish Army

Hücüm Müfrezesi - Storm Troopers 

 

 Kress inspecting Ottoman Storm Troopers, late 1917.

 

The following account of the Storm Troopers in the Ottoman Army is extracted from the book written by Ed Erickson called Ottoman Army effectiveness in World War I: a comparative study, Oxford, 2007, and taken from pp. 103-5:

 

Tactical innovations from the western front were also introduced on a routine basis in Palestine. On 25 October 1917, German Colonel Hergote, fresh from the western front, delivered a presentation to the 21st Infantry Regiment on the principles of assault and battle training, and also on reconnaissance training.

The 7th Infantry Division was simultaneously engaged in a major restructuring of its tactical organisational architecture. After its arrival in Beersheba, the division inactivated the 4th Company of each infantry battalion on 28 June. On 10 August reflecting the most current tactical thinking, the division activated a machine-gun company, armed with light machine guns, in every infantry battalion.' This reorganisation was repeated in every Ottoman infantry division in Palestine. Thus as the 7th Infantry Division lost a quarter of its rifle strength it gained offensive and defensive capability by the addition of light machine guns within infantry battalions.`"

On 17 July 1917, the division activated an assault detachment (hücüm müfrezesi) of fifty men. (This was the Turkish version of German Stosstruppen.) This was a local initiative implemented by von Kressenstein, who wanted to introduce the most current western front tactical innovations into his army. He assigned Major Kiehl to supervise the training of the Ottoman assault troops 'with good results' . Kress inspected the companies in September 1917 and mentioned, `it is evident that proper training and grooming would bring out the best in these brave, obedient, and humble Anatolian soldiers' . In the absence of written doctrinal information, an unofficial manual on assault troop tactics was written and distributed by the 19th Infantry Division commander, which was based on the experiences of that division in Galicia.

The fact that the Ottoman Army raised, trained, equipped, and employed stone troops has escaped general notice in the English language historiography of World War 1. However, in 1994, Dr. David Nicolle published a clear photograph of a platoon of Ottoman Army storm troops in Palestine in the summer of 1918. The men are outfitted in well fitting uniforms, German-style steel helmets, have under-arm grenade bags with stick grenades, German Mauser rifles, and puttee leggings. This unique photograph is important because the men look confident and fit, well fed, and arc thoroughly equipped - indeed, a picture that is at odds with our historical perception of the Ottoman Army in Palestine. Although it is dangerous to draw a generalised conclusion from Nicolle's photograph, it is obvious that the Turks, at least in one locality, gave a high priority to the selection of men for, and to the maintenance of, its assault troop formations.

On I September 1917, Enver Pasha ordered the general activation of assault troops within the Ottoman Army. Enver directed the XV Corps, the First Army, and the Fourth Army to activate the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Assault Battalions respectively. Additionally, he ordered each infantry division in the Yildirim Army Group and in the Fourth Army to activate assault detachments. Enver was very specific that only the best officers, NCOs, and men (`from the best units in the division, who were intelligent, healthy and hardy, and not more than twentyseven years of age') were selected for these elite units. Additionally, the assault units received better rations, a distinctive badge (an embroidered hand grenade), and conducted a one-month assault course. Later the divisional assault detachments matured into assault battalions. Initially, the Ottoman armies in Mesopotamia, western Anatolia, and Caucasia were excluded from the requirement to activate assault troops.

In the creation of assault battalions the Ottoman Army returned to an organisational architecture that it had abandoned in 1913. One of the Ottoman General Staff's organisational changes in 1914 was the abolition of the organic rifle regiment at army corps level and the organic rifle battalion at infantry division level. These highly specialised regiments and battalions were the Ottoman Army's equivalent of German Jäger or French chusseurs. The reason for this action was the inability of the army during the Balkan Wars to utilise effectively the rifle regiments and battalions in their proper doctrinal role. In fact, during the First Balkan War, Ottoman commanders tended to misuse their rifle battalions as immediate reserves or as a nucleus for ad hoc provisional formations. They were almost never used properly in reconnaissance, screening, or flank guard missions. Consequently, the Ottoman General Staff deactivated the rifle units in the spring of 1914 because the misuse of concentrations of hand-picked men degraded the overall quality of the regular infantry regiments. It should be noted that after World War 2 the US Army deactivated its Ranger battalions for the same reason - the concentration of elite soldiers in specialised units weakened the army's regular infantry establishment and there did not seem to be an appropriate tactical return on such an investment.

The activation of the assault battalion (hücüm tahur) essentially returned the Ottoman Army to the elitist organisational architecture of 1910-14. Each infantry division had three infantry regiments (of three infantry battalions) and one assault battalion, within which there was a high concentration of aggressive and fit officers and men. Unlike the German Army, the Turks formed no specialised assault or storm troop divisions.

By the end of 1917 the strategic and operational initiative in Palestine had passed to the British. Consequently, both the practical and technical need of the Ottoman Army to possess assault troops also passed. Nevertheless, the assault troop battalions of the Ottoman Fourth, Seventh, and Eighth Armies were retained, possibly with a view to future offensive operations of the Yildirim Army Group. It should be remembered that until the failure of the Ludendorff offensives in the spring of 1918, the strategic posture of the Central Powers appeared favourable.

 

Turkish Storm Trooper casualties at Tel el Ful, 27 December 1917

 

With the falling moral of the Ottoman Army during the first half of 1918, the elite units also suffered a decline. A secret memo detailing the state of the Yildirim Army Group in July 1918 states the following:

 

Attack Units

VIIth Army Attack Battalion.

This battalion is camped about two miles south of Narblus. All men are equipped with steel helmets and gas masks. At present it is used in arresting deserters, but in case of the British advance it is to be used to counter attack.

XX Army Corps Attack Battalion.

This battalion is in reserve in the XXth Army Corps area. Its strength and equipment are similar to those of the VIIth Army Battalion.

20th Division Attack Company

This company is camped near Jalud (C.5/O.2.a.) and is 130 strong. It formerly numbered 180, but three weeks ago, 50 men deserted, taking with them two machine guns stolen from a Regimental Machine Gun Company. (Officer deserter, 4/78th Regiment, 10-9).

Comment -
The above strengths are greater than in the case of other formations and are probably exaggerated.

 

Further Reading

The Battle of El Burj, 1 December 1917

Turkish Army

 


Citation: Turkish Army, Hücüm Müfrezesi - Storm Troopers


Posted by Project Leader at 1:06 PM EADT
Updated: Wednesday, 15 July 2009 1:13 PM EADT
Friday, 8 May 2009
The Battle of Krithia, Gallipoli, 8 May 1915, Turkish Roll of Honour
Topic: Tk - Army

The Battle of Krithia

Gallipoli, 8 May 1915

Turkish Roll of Honour

 

Çanakkale Martyr's Memorial
[Photo by Jll.]

 

The Roll of Honour contains the names of all the men known to have served at Gallipoli and gave their lives in service of the Ottoman Empire during The Battle of Krithia, Gallipoli, 8 May 1915. The names are compiled from the Turkish Book of Martyrs commonly known as Sehitlerimiz

 

Roll of Honour

 

ABDULLAH, also known as “MOLLAMUSA OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of MEHMET, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

ABDURRAHMAN, also known as “KOCA SEFER OĞULLARI”, the son of SEFER, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

AHMET, the son of AHMET, 21st Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 7th Company.

AHMET, the son of ALİ, 16th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 2nd Company.

AHMET, also known as “YAKUP OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of BEKİR, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

AHMET, also known as “HACI OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of HACI HÜSEYİN, 25th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 2nd Company.

AHMET, the son of İBRAHİM, 10th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

AHMET, the son of MEHMET, 71st Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 10th Company.

AHMET, also known as “KÖSE OĞULLARI”, the son of MUSTAFA, Unknown Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

AHMET, the son of NURİ, 17th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

AHMET, also known as “KARABEY OĞULLARI”, the son of OSMAN, 125th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, Unknown Company.

AHMET, the son of SÜLEYMAN, 16th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 2nd Company.

AHMET, the son of YAKUP, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

ALİ, the son of AHMET, 11th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 4th Company.

ALİ, also known as “ALİ ABBAS OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of ALİ MEHMET, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 2nd Company.

ALİ, the son of BEŞE, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

ALİ, the son of DURMUŞ, 14th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 12th Company.

ALİ, also known as “BEŞOĞULLARINDAN”, the son of HALİL, Unknown Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

ALİ, the son of HASAN, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 8th Company.

ALİ, the son of HASAN, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

ALİ, also known as “DELİ AHMET OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of HÜSEYİN, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

ALİ, the son of SÜLEYMAN, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

ARİF, the son of İSMAİL, 25th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 4th Company.

 

BEYTULLAH, the son of ÖMER, 20th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 4th Company.

 

DURMUŞ, also known as “ALİCİK OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of İBRAHİM, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

 

EYÜP, the son of HALİL, 17th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 4th Company.

 

FAHRİ, the son of MAHMUT, 12th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 2nd Company.

FERHAT AĞA, the son of MUSTAFA, 55th Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

FEYZİ, the son of MUSTAFA, 1st Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 9th Company.

 

HALİL, also known as “GÖK HÜSEYİN OĞULLARI”, the son of ALİ, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 8th Company.

HALİL, the son of HALİL, 20th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 9th Company.

HALİL, the son of HASAN, 39th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 8th Company.

HALİL, the son of İBRAHİM, 126th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 4th Company.

HAMDİ, the son of ABDULLAH, 19th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 4th Company.

HASAN, the son of HALİL, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 1st Company.

HASAN, the son of RECEP, 124th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 2nd Company.

HASAN, the son of SELİM, 12th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

HASAN FEHMİ EFENDİ, the son of HÜSEYİN, Unknown Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

HASAN HÜSEYİN, the son of SÜLEYMAN, 17th Regiment, 4th Battalion, Unknown Company.

HÜSEYİN, the son of AHMET, 11th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 5th Company.

HÜSEYİN, the son of KAMİL, 38th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

HÜSEYİN, the son of MEHMET, 10th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 9th Company.

HÜSEYİN, the son of MUSTAFA, 11th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

HÜSEYİN, the son of MUSTAFA, 70th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 5th Company.

İBRAHİM, the son of HÜSEYİN, 3rd Regiment, 1st Battalion, 2nd Company.

İBRAHİM, also known as “NALBANT OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of MEHMET, 47th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 4th Company.

 

İSA, also known as “SARIÖMER OĞULLARI”, the son of MEHMET EMİN, 17th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 9th Company.

İSMAİL, also known as “YUSUF OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of MEHMET, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

 

KASIM, the son of MEHMET, 57th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Company.

KASIM, the son of MEHMET, 57th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Company.

 

MEHMET, also known as “PENBE SANCAKDAR OĞULLARI”, the son of AHMET, Unknown Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

MEHMET, the son of AHMET, 124th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 11th Company.

MEHMET, the son of HACI HASAN, 57th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 11th Company.

MEHMET, also known as “KARASÜLEYMAN OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of HÜSEYİN, Unknown Regiment, 1st Battalion, 17th Company.

MEHMET, the son of HÜSEYİN, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

MEHMET, the son of HÜSEYİN, 11th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 8th Company.

MEHMET, the son of HÜSEYİN, 11th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 8th Company.

MEHMET, the son of HÜSEYİN, 46th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 4th Company.

MEHMET, the son of İBRAHİM, 12th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

MEHMET, the son of İBRAHİM, 18th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 4th Company.

MEHMET, the son of KASIM MUSTAFA, 124th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

MEHMET, also known as “GARİP OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of MAHMUT, 5th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 4th Company.

MEHMET, the son of MAHMUT, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

MEHMET, the son of MEHMET, 10th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 6th Company.

MEHMET, the son of MEHMET, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

MEHMET, the son of MUSTAFA, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 7th Company.

MEHMET, the son of ÖMER, 10th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 12th Company.

MEHMET, the son of YUSUF, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Company.

MEHMET, the son of YUSUF, 124th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

MEHMET ALİ, the son of AHMET, 34th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 1st Company.

MEHMET ALİ, also known as “EMİN EFENDİ OĞULLARI”, the son of HASAN, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 8th Company.

MEHMET ALİ, the son of MEHMET, 25th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 1st Company.

MEHMET BURHAN, the son of HACI HALİL, 16th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, Unknown Company.

MEVLÜT, the son of ABDUL, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 14th Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of ABDULLATİF, 10th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 6th Company.

MUSTAFA, also known as “ARAP OĞULLARI”, the son of AHMET, 126th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

MUSTAFA, also known as “HALİLBEY OĞULLARI”, the son of EMİN, Unknown Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

MUSTAFA, also known as “HALİLBEY OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of EMİN, 16th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, Unknown Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of HASAN, 11th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 10th Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of HASAN, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 5th Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of HÜSEYİN, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 6th Company.

MUSTAFA, also known as “DELİBEKİR OĞULLARI”, the son of İBRAHİM, 19th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of İSMAİL, 20th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of MEHMET, 10th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of MEHMET, 127th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 4th Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of MEHMET ALİ, 10th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 11th Company.

MUSTAFA, the son of VELİ, 126th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 5th Company.

 

NİYAZİ, the son of YUSUF, 11th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

NURİ, the son of EMİN, 17th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

 

ÖMER, the son of İBRAHİM, 20th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 2nd Company.

ÖMER, the son of MEHMET, 10th Regiment, Unknown Battalion, 14th Company.

OSMAN, the son of ALİ, 29th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Company.

OSMAN, the son of MUSTAFA, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

OSMAN, also known as “ÇOMUŞ OĞULLARI”, the son of OSMAN, Unknown Regiment, Unknown Battalion, Unknown Company.

 

RAMAZAN, also known as “MEMİŞ”, the son of MEHMET ALİ, 41st Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 6th Company.

RAMAZAN, also known as “SEVAHİLLİ OĞULLARI”, the son of MEHMET ALİ, 41st Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 6th Company.

RASİM, the son of HASAN, 12th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 4th Company.

 

ŞABAN, the son of ALİ, 12th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Company.

SAİM, the son of AHMET, 12th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

SAİT, the son of MUHTAR, 10th Regiment, 4th Battalion, 15th Company.

SALİH EFENDİ, the son of HASAN, 72nd Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 5th Company.

ŞERAFETTİN, the son of ŞABAN, 71st Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

SIDKI, the son of KAMİL, 124th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 5th Company.

SÜLEYMAN, the son of HÜSEYİN, 31st Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 9th Company.

SÜLEYMAN, the son of MEHMET, 34th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 1st Company.

SÜLEYMAN, the son of MEHMET, 34th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Company.

SÜLEYMAN, the son of ÖMER, 14th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 11th Company.

SÜLEYMAN, also known as “OSMAN OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of ŞAMİL, 38th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 1st Company.

 

TALİP, the son of MUSTAFA, 17th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 12th Company.

TURAN, also known as “AĞRIS OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of SAMUR, 60th Regiment, 1st Battalion, Unknown Company.

 

YUSUF, also known as “RECEP OĞLU”, the son of ABDULLAH, 12th Regiment, 1st Battalion, 3rd Company.

YUSUF, also known as “HATİP OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of MEHMET, 57th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 12th Company.

YUSUF, also known as “KÖR HASAN OĞULLARINDAN”, the son of MUSTAFA, 20th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Company.

 

Lest We Forget

 

 

Further Reading:

Turkish Army 

The Battle of Krithia, Gallipoli, 8 May 1915

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920

 


Citation: The Battle of Krithia, Gallipoli, 8 May 1915, Turkish Roll of Honour

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Saturday, 8 May 2010 2:21 PM EADT

Newer | Latest | Older

Full Site Index


powered by FreeFind
Let us hear your story: You can tell your story, make a comment or ask for help on our forum.

Desert Column Forum

A note on copyright

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre is a not for profit and non profit group whose sole aim is to write the early history of the Australian Light Horse from 1900 - 1920. It is privately funded and the information is provided by the individuals within the group and while permission for the use of the material has been given for this site for these items by various donors, the residual and actual copyright for these items, should there be any, resides exclusively with the donors. The information on this site is freely available for private research use only and if used as such, should be appropriately acknowledged. To assist in this process, each item has a citation attached at the bottom for referencing purposes.

Please Note: No express or implied permission is given for commercial use of the information contained within this site.

A note to copyright holders

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre has made every endeavour to contact copyright holders of material digitised for this blog and website and where appropriate, permission is still being sought for these items. Where replies were not received, or where the copyright owner has not been able to be traced, or where the permission is still being sought, the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre has decided, in good faith, to proceed with digitisation and publication. Australian Light Horse Studies Centre would be happy to hear from copyright owners at any time to discuss usage of this item.

Contact

Australian Light Horse Studies Centre

eXTReMe Tracker