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"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre aims to present an accurate history as chroniclers of early Australian military developments from 1899 to 1920.

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre site holds over 12,000 entries and is growing daily.

Contact: Australian Light Horse Studies Centre

Let us hear your story: You can tell your story, make a comment or ask for help on our Australian Light Horse Studies Centre Forum called:

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WARNING: This site contains: names, information and images of deceased people; and, language which may be considered inappropriate today.

Thursday, 30 July 2009
The Volunteer Movement in Western Australia, Wellington Mounted Volunteers
Topic: Militia - LHW - WA

Western Australian Militia

Wellington Mounted Volunteers


The following is an extract from the book written in 1962 by George F. Wieck called The Volunteer Movement in Western Australia 1861-1903, pp. 43 – 44:

Wellington Mounted Volunteers

After the failure in 1862 to raise a Volunteer corps in the Vasse-Sussex district nothing further was done until in 1876 the Military Commandant recommended a proposal to raise a mounted corps at Bunbury. A Government Gazette, dated 25 June 1877, contained authority to raise the "Wellington Mounted Volunteers" with headquarters at Bunbury. Captain J. H. Rose was appointed to Command.

There are no recorded details of the life and experiences of the corps. There are indications that difficulties in the supply of arms and uniform, similar to those suffered by the sister corps at Pinjarrah, caused disappointment among the rank and file.

The colour and design of uniform adopted were similar to that worn by the Pinjarrah corps and the arms issued were also revolver carbines and Light Cavalry swords. An officer's sword with the title of the corps "chased" on the blade is in the custody of the Perth Museum.

The roll bore 55 names in 1877, 38 in 1889, and only 18 in 1882. There can have been no surprise when the Government Gazette of 30 November 1883 announced the disbandment of the corps.

Officers of the Wellington Mounted Volunteers

Captain RH Rose, 25 June 1877

Captain TR Lovegrove, 25 June 1877

Lieutenant MW Clifton, 7 August 1878


Previous:  Geraldton Rifle Volunteers

Next: Albany Rifle Volunteers


Further Reading:

Western Australian Militia, Light Horse

Western Australian Militia, Infantry


Citation: The Volunteer Movement in Western Australia, Wellington Mounted Volunteers

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Friday, 4 September 2009 10:41 PM EADT
Australian Light Horse, Roles within the Regiment, Duties of Regimental Orderly Sergeant
Topic: AIF - Lighthorse

Australian Light Horse

Roles within the Regiment

Duties of Regimental Orderly Sergeant


The following entries dealing with the roles and duties within the hierarchy of a light horse regiment are extracted from a very informative handbook called The Bushman’s Military Guide, 1898. While written in 1898, the information contained in the entries held true for the next twenty years with only minor modifications with the principles remaining as current then as now.


Duties of Regimental Orderly Sergeant


(1.) He comes on duty with the regimental guard daily.

(2.) He will collect the watch setting reports from troops orderly sergeants and deliver them to the orderly squadron sergeant-mayor or staff- sergeant.

(3.) He attends all parades.

(4.) He will take charge of the regimental guard at watch setting; and remain in the guard tent until reveille, which he will cause to be sounded by the orderly trumpeter at the proper time.

(5.) He accompanies the orderly officer when visiting tents, horse-lines, etc.

(6.) He will see that the Camp is kept clean and no paper or rubbish is ever thrown about the lines except in the manure heap.

(7.) He will draw the blank ammunition required for drill purposes and issue to orderly sergeants of regimental units collecting the unexpended portions from them on the return of the troops from the field and return it to the Quartermaster.

(8.) He will parade all mounted orderlies on their quitting or returning to Camp.

(9.) He will assist the Quartermaster at all general fatigues detailed to keep the Camp clean.

Form of Regimental Orderly Sergeant's Report.
............................. THE CAMP.




(1.) I certify I reported myself to the Captain and orderly officer of the day at ........ a.m., ............... the instant, and accompanied the orderly officer of the day round the various duties.

(2.) I paraded and marched off the meals of the men on duty at breakfast, dinner, and supper hours. The orderly corporals were present.

(3.) The General and Regimental Orders were shown by me to the whole of the regimental staff and field officers present. I afterwards left the books with the Adjutant.

(4.) I visited the cooking-places and horse-troughs during the day and found them clean.

(5.) I saw all lights extinguished after watch-setting at the specified time, except those authorised.

(6.) Half-an-hour after reveille sounding I went round the Camp of the regiment and saw the curtains of the tents rolled up in a uniform manner.

(7.) I was present at the issue of rations and forage.

(8.) I append the report of the orderly corporal.

(9.) I parade all mounted orderlies on quitting and returning to Camp.

(10.) I issued and collected all blank ammunition during the day.

(11.) I took charge of the regimental guard at watch-setting, and remained in the guard tent until reveille.



Orderly Sergeant.

The Orderly Officer of the day.



Previous: Duties of Regimental Orderly Squadron Sergeant Major 

Next: Regimental Orderly Corporal 


Further Reading:

Australian Light Horse

Militia 1899 - 1920


Citation: Australian Light Horse, Roles within the Regiment, Duties of Regimental Orderly Sergeant

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Wednesday, 2 September 2009 10:50 AM EADT
Surafend, the massacre, Palestine, 10 December 1918, Mulhall Account
Topic: BatzP - Surafend

Surafend, the massacre

Palestine, 10 December 1918

Mulhall Account


Page 1 of AS Mulhall letter.
[For full copy of letter, click on image.]


The following is a transcription of a letter written by Ambrose Stephen Mulhall (3180 Private Ambrose Stephen MULHALL) to Senator Sir George Pearce and dated 19 July 1936. The letter itself is almost illegible but the following has been extracted. The use of the "???" indicates a word or phrase that could not be deciphered.


The Right Honourable Senator Sir George Pearce.

Dear Sir,

I desire to ask if you would be good enough to furnish me with a copy of the report which was made to you at that time as responsible Minister (Minister for Defence) relative to the Bedouin massacres in Palestine in December, 1918.

On the Sunday following General Allenby addressed the remnant of the Division and accused us all and sundry of being a lot of cold-blooded murderers and cowards. Later Allenby went to England and in a speech at Dover said, among other things, the Australian Light Horsemen were no other than a lot of murderers and cowards. This part of his speech was cabled to Australia and published in the Sydney Sun newspaper.

I was one of those encamped in that area at the time and saw Sergeant Lawry the New Zealander buried. I also heard the rifle shots that night. The following morning at 7 a.m. I was at the Bedouin village which was then a mass of ruins: every hut had been fired. I counted the dead and made a general observation of the whole affair. I was astounded at seeing so many with their heads battered. It did not appear to be the work of ??? soldiers being an experience man in crime and its detection here I had been member of the NSW Mounted and from which I  had resigned to enlist for War Service.

I decided there and then to go right into the whole matter, the whole thing was so inhuman the way they had been done to death and ??? this is the result of my investigations. In the first place it was the New Zealanders' affair and it was a New Zealand soldier who had been murdered by a Bedouin. This led up to the killing after the funeral of Lowry. On the Monday evening a meeting was held near the Bedouin Village. It was decided to raid the village that night and get Lowry's murderer. They also decided to send a dispatch rider around to the various camps in that area for re-enforcements. It was december and ???  at 6 p.mp. Shortly after the despatch rider had left on his mission he became confused with the light of the numerous camps he corrected his way and returned to the village ???? He had visited the Tommys Artillery Camp and informed them. Artillerymen are not issued with rifles. The Tommys decided to join the New Zealanders in full force and having no rifles they decided and which they did took iron bludgeons to the village. Ten minutes were given the Bedouins to hand over the Bedouin murderers of Segt Lowry. But this the Bedouin ??? refused. All women and children under the age of 16 were removed from the village and placed under guard on the hillside ??? outback. Then the mad frenzy commenced. The New Zealanders used their rifles and the Tommys using their bludgeons bashin and battering the Natives to death. There was only three regiments of Australians encamped in that area at the time: the 1st ALH, 3rd ALH and 6th ALH Regiments. The Australians were not present there that night, they did not know there was any trouble taking place in the village that night. I was engaged for some days in these investigations and I say definitely.

Official enquiry was held during that week. I never had an opportunity, either secretly or otherwise tell Allenby that it was his cold-blooded Pommy and ??? who did the massacre. Allenby hated us Australians and he put his spite on to us.

Sir Henry Gullett in his book says Lowry chased the Bedouin through the sandhills. There no sandhills within three miles of the spot where Lowry was shot. He also says guards were placed around the village that night and all next day which was all ??? Nothing was done until after the ???? the following evening.

Now Mr. Geo says he presided over a court of enquiry and that ample proofs were given that the Australians were there in large numbers. At the same time Mr. Bell strictly avoids mentioning what units they belonged to, but he cannot escape.

I said then that New Zealanders were foolish taking those Pommies ??? in that they ???

Now the last lying statement of Allenby involves 50,000 Australians. Are you prepared to allow your own countrymen to be condemned like this? Years I have been working to clear the stigma from us; the time has not been opportune. I tried ??? when Allenby was in Australia ???

Trusting you will supply me with a copy of that report.

Yours faithfully

(signed) A.S. MULHALL


Fomerly 3180 Private Ambrose Stephen MULHALL, 1st LHR.


Further Reading:

Full original Mulhall Letter


Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920


Citation: Surafend, the massacre, Palestine, 10 December 1918, Mulhall Account

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Wednesday, 20 January 2010 2:28 PM EAST
14th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour
Topic: AIF - 5B - 14 LHR

14th LHR, AIF

14th Australian Light Horse Regiment

Roll of Honour

Poppies on the Roll of Honour, Australian War Memorial, Canberra


The Roll of Honour contains the names of all the men known to have served at one time with the 14th Light Horse Regiment and gave their lives in service of Australia, whether as part of the 14th Light Horse Regiment or another unit.


Roll of Honour


William Michael Sylvester BOURKE, Killed in Action, 28 March 1917.

Robert BOYD, Died of Wounds, 9 April 1917.

William James BROWN, Died of Wounds, 13 April 1917.



Arthur Archibald CAMERON, Killed in Action, 27 February 1917.

Thomas Harvey CAMPBELL, Died of Wounds, 9 July 1917.

Ernest Milton COLLINS, Died of Wounds, 14 September 1918.

Edwin CRAGG, Killed in Action, 7 June 1917.



Charles Henry DAY, Died of Disease, 15 November 1918.

Charles DUNCAN, Killed in Action, 23 September 1917.

Leslie Allen FAIRHALL, Died of Disease, 28 August 1918.



John James GLASS, Killed in Action, 9 June 1917.

David Livingstone GRAHAM, Died of Disease, 19 December 1916.



Frederick Albert Foster HARDY, Killed in Action, 9 June 1917.

George HINE, Killed in Action, 20 June 1918.

William John HUTTON, Died of Wounds, 16 July 1917.



Harold Aubrey Thomas INGRAM, Died of Wounds, 13 August 1918.



Phillip Peterson JOLLY, Killed in Action, 26 September 1917.



Victor LINKLATER, Died of Wounds, 29 March 1918.



William MARGERRISON, Killed in Action, 1 October 1917.

Henry Samuel Hugh McCARROLL, Killed in Action, 10 April 1918.

Garnett Cecil McLENNAN, Killed in Action, 1 March 1917.

John Francis McNULTY, Died of Wounds, 25 November 1917.

John Vincent MEAGHER, Killed in Action, 25 June 1917.

Jack MUNROE, Killed in Action, 25 February 1917.



Robert Henry NEAVERSON, Killed in Action, 26 April 1918.

Arthur Daniel NICHOLLS, Killed in Action, 28 January 1917.



David William ORCHARD, Died of Wounds, 28 March 1918.

Jeremiah O'SULLIVAN, Killed in Action, 7 May 1917.



George Charles PINKERTON, Died of Wounds, 6 July 1918.

William john Thomas ROWE, Killed in Action, 13 August 1918.



John Michael RYNNE, Killed in Action, 25 September 1918.



John SHEEHAN, Killed in Action, 25 April 1918.

William Richard SHEEHAN, Killed in Action, 7 June 1917.

Bertie SIMPSON, Died of Wounds, 12 June 1918.

Leslie SIMS, Killed in Action, 28 March 1918.

Frank SLADE, Killed in Action, 7 June 1917.

George Edward STACE, Killed in Action, 14 November 1916.



Oswald Urbin TARDENT, Died of Wounds, 14 June 1918.



Thomas WILDE, Died of Wounds, 2 October 1917.


Lest We Forget


Acknowledgement: Many thanks to Steve Becker who provided much of the raw material that appears in this item.

Further Reading:

14th Australian Light Horse Regiment, AIF

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920


Citation: 14th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Monday, 3 August 2009 10:43 AM EADT
The Nek, Gallipoli, 7 August 1915, Brigadier General Hughes account
Topic: BatzG - Nek



The Nek

Gallipoli, 7 August 1915

Brigadier General Hughes account


Colonel Frederic Hughes


Hidden amongst the signal returns issuing from Gallipoli, this gem was discovered. It is the immediate post battle report of Colonel Hughes regarding the charge at the Nek. It is a most peculiar account which does not accord at all with the available evidence. The account will speak for itself and says a great deal about the man who wrote this despatch.


Page 1



Despatch on Operations 6/7 August 1915

No. 4 Section, Russell's Top

I have the honor to report that in compliance with the Operation Orders contained in Divisional Order 11 and subsequent instructions, the dispositions of the Force under my command were accordingly prepared and every possible effort made to carry out the task assigned to me. (My Operational Orders have already been submitted to you.)

The Navy and Artillery shelled the Nek and Chessboard from 0400 to 0430 with increasing rapidity. From 0420 very heavy rifle fire and incessant MG Fire continued from the whole of the positions in front without intermission.

At precisely 0430 the 1st Line, followed by the 2nd (8th LH) jumped out of the saps and trenches in the face of an overwhelming rifle and MG fire, our position having been


Page 2



Page 2, Account Continued ... 


heavily shelled up to midnight.

The fire was so deadly that only a few of the 1st Line on our extreme right reached the enemy trenches. This and the other two lines were almost decimated, so much so that I withdrew the few who were not shot down and sent them with the Cheshire Infantry Battalion to support two companies of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers detailed to attack the "C" Trenches via Monash Gully. The Royal Welsh Fusiliers soon after opening their attack were held up by heavy MG and bomb fire and could make no headway. After perservering or make any impression on the Turk's defences.

Units were then collected and dispositions made to resist any possible counter attack.

In my mind the whole of the enemy's trenches are fully manned and the position bristles with MGuns, a few of which only had been located.

In my opinion the position is impossible to capture by frontal attack.

The casualties are heavy so far as can be gathered. 410 out of about double the number who took part


Page 3



Page 3, Account Continued ...  


in the assault. Of these, 16 out of 18 Officers of the 8th ALH were casualties.

I desire to bring under your special notice the gallant conduct of Lieutenant Colonel AH White, CO 8th LH Regiment who notwithstanding he had only partially recovered from a shell head wound received on June 30th, took command of the 1st assaulting line and insisted on leading his men in the face of the heavy MG fire and is reported to have fallen before the trenches were reached. This cool and gallant conduct was one fo the finest examples of leadership that could possibly be imagined. Many of his men fell before they left their own parapets. It is with the deepest regret that I have to report the death of Lieutenant Colonel Miell, CO 9th ALH Regiment. He was a keen energetic soldier who always did his duty well and conscientiously. I cannot refrain also from referring to the splendid behaviour and discipline of the troops who charged forward so bravely in the face of such overwhelming and heavy bomb and MG fire.

All honour to 


Page 4



Page 4, Account Continued ...  


those men who did their best for King and Empire.

In conclusion may I express my appreciation of the gallant services of the officers and men of the 2nd Cheshire Battalion and the 8th Royal Welsh Fusiliers Battalion.

I must also record the very valued assistance I have received from my Brigade Major Lieutenant Colonel JM Antill CB, whose keen and energetic services have always been of most value to me.

I intend to bring under your notice in a subsequent report some of those instances of gallantry which are being brought under my immediate notice.


Points to note:

1. The shelling is stated to have occurred from 0400 to 0430 when it is clearly known that the bombardment ceased at 4.21 a.m., a critical difference as far as the charging lines were concerned.

2. 0420 and the machine guns fire - this did occur from Turk's Point.

3. Hughes mentions that men of the first wave made it to the Turkish trenches. This is possibly the flag seen in the Turkish trenches that led to the launch of the next wave to support the survivors.

4. Hughes mentions the Cheshires and Welch Fusiliers, something missing from most Australian accounts of the Nek.



Further Reading:

The Nek, Gallipoli, 7 August 1915

Roll of Honour, Australian, British and Turkish 

Gallipoli Campaign

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1919


Citation: The Nek, Gallipoli, 7 August 1915, Brigadier General Hughes account

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Friday, 6 August 2010 5:18 PM EADT

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The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre is a not for profit and non profit group whose sole aim is to write the early history of the Australian Light Horse from 1900 - 1920. It is privately funded and the information is provided by the individuals within the group and while permission for the use of the material has been given for this site for these items by various donors, the residual and actual copyright for these items, should there be any, resides exclusively with the donors. The information on this site is freely available for private research use only and if used as such, should be appropriately acknowledged. To assist in this process, each item has a citation attached at the bottom for referencing purposes.

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