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"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre aims to present an accurate history as chroniclers of early Australian military developments from 1899 to 1920.

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre site holds over 12,000 entries and is growing daily.

Contact: Australian Light Horse Studies Centre

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WARNING: This site contains: names, information and images of deceased people; and, language which may be considered inappropriate today.

Tuesday, 12 August 2008
9th LHR AIF War Diary, August 12
Topic: AIF - 3B - 9 LHR

9th LHR, AIF

9th Light Horse Regiment

War Diary, 12 August

Pro Gloria et Honore - For Glory and Honour

Regimental March -  Marching Through Georgia



The following entries are extracted and transcribed from the 9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary, the originals of which are held by the Australian War Memorial. There are 366 entries on this site. Each day has entries as they occurred from 1914 to 1919. In addition to the 9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary, when appropriate, entries from the 3rd Light Horse Brigade War Diary and other regiments with the Brigade will also appear. Entries from the unit history, Darley, TH, With the Ninth Light Horse in the Great War, Adelaide, Hassell Press, 1924 will also appear from time to time. The aim is to give the broadest context to the story and allow the reader to follow the day to day activities of the regiment. If a relative happened to have served in the regiment during the Great War, then this provides a general framework in which the individual story may be told.


The Diary



Wednesday, August 12, 1914

See 4th Military District, South Australia for militia activities.



Thursday, August 12, 1915

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Walkers Ridge

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - No Entry.

Carew Reynell Diary  - No Entry.



Saturday, August 12, 1916
9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Hod Abu Dahad
9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - 0400, Left camp and marched to Hasanien and were told enemy had evacuated redoubt during night and had fallen back.
Passed through 8th Light Horse at 0600 and followed up pursuit to a point about 8 miles south west of Salmana. Enemy could be seen moving on hills to the east.

At 1400 the Regiment took up a position on the high sand ridge overlooking Salmana and the Inverness Battery shelled the hod and surrounding hills. Enemy replied with high explosives and shrapnel - about 100 shells falling in our positions. Luckily no casualties occurred.

Colonel JR Royston, CMG, DSO, took over command of Brigade from General Antill.

At 1900 Regiment returned to Hod Hasanien for the night.

Men and horses very tired having been constantly on the go since 4th instant.



Sunday, August 12, 1917
9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Tel el Marakeb
9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - 0800 Church Parade.
For the purpose of reference the map area is defined as follows: On the north - the sea. East - the Turkish lines. West - a line running from the south along the Egyptian frontier until it meets a line north and south through small gully just west of El Fukhari [Square Y28a Sheet Rafa], thence by the north south line until southern Khan Yunis - Gaza border is reached - thence a line to north east of Tel el Marakeb. The western boundary defined above is the eastern boundary of the Palestine line of control.



Monday, August 12, 1918
9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Bluff
9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Cruddas, Lieutenant GF; and, two Other Ranks proceeded on short leave to Egypt. Shaw, Lieutenant OJ, returned from short leave in Egypt.
Regimental Order No 8 issued.
2000, Heavy bombardment observed north west which proved to be 60th Division carrying out a trench raid.



Tuesday, August 12, 1919

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Adelaide

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Regiment disbanded.



Previous: 9th LHR AIF War Diary, 11 August

Next: 9th LHR AIF War Diary, 13 August



See: 9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Contents
Australian Light Horse Studies Centre, AIF War Diaries of the Great War, Site Transcription Policy


Further Reading:

9th Light Horse Regiment AIF

Bert Schramm Diary

9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour 

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920


Citation: 9th LHR AIF War Diary, 12 August

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Wednesday, 15 September 2010 10:31 PM EADT
Diaries of AIF Servicemen, Bert Schramm, 12 August 1918
Topic: Diary - Schramm

Diaries of AIF Servicemen

Bert Schramm

12 August 1918


Bert Schramm


2823 Private Herbert Leslie SCHRAMM, a 22 year old Farmer from Whites River, South Australia. He enlisted on 17 February 1916; and at the conclusion of the war Returned to Australia, 10 July 1919.

During part of the course of his military service with the AIF, Bert Schramm kept a diary of his life. Bert was not a man of letters so this diary was produced with great effort on his behalf. Bert made a promise to his sweetheart, Lucy Solley, that he would do so after he received the blank pocket notebook wherein these entries are found. As a Brigade Scout since September 1918, he took a lead part in the September Offensive by the Allied forces in Palestine. Bert's diary entries are placed alongside those of the 9th Light Horse Regiment to which he belonged and to the 3rd Light Horse Brigade to which the 9th LHR was attached. On this basis we can follow Bert in the context of his formation.


The Diaries

The complete diary is now available on the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre Site at:

Bert Schramm Diary

Finding more about a service person. See:

Navigating the National Archives Service File 


Bert Schramm's Handwritten Diary, 11 - 18 August 1918

[Click on page for a larger print version.]

Bert Schramm

Monday, August 12, 1918

Bert Schramm's Location - Bluff, Jordan Valley, Palestine.

Bert Schramm's Diary - Things rather quiet believe we are being relieved by infantry in a few days.


9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Bluff, Jordan Valley, Palestine.

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Cruddas, Lieutenant GF; and, two Other Ranks proceeded on short leave to Egypt. Shaw, Lieutenant OJ, returned from short leave in Egypt. Regimental Order No 8 issued.

2000, Heavy bombardment observed north west which proved to be 60th Division carrying out a trench raid.

9th LHR AIF War Diary, 12 August



Darley, TH, With the Ninth Light Horse in the Great War, Adelaide, Hassell Press, 1924.

No Entry



Previous: Bert Schramm's Diary, 11 August 1918

Next: Bert Schramm's Diary, 13 August 1918

Sources Used:

Bert Schramm's Diary

National Archives Service File.

Embarkation Roll, AWM8.

Australian War Memorial Roll of Honour

Nominal Roll, AWM133, Nominal Roll of Australian Imperial Force who left Australia for service abroad, 1914-1918 War.


War Diaries and Letters

All War Diaries and letters cited on this site should be read in conjunction with the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre, War Diaries and Letters, Site Transcription Policy which may be accessed at:

Australian Light Horse Studies Centre, War Diaries and Letters, Site Transcription Policy 


Further Reading:

Bert Schramm Diary

Bert Schramm Diary, Album

Bert Schramm's Photo Album

9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, AIF

9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, War Diary, Day by Day Account

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920


Citation: Diaries of AIF Servicemen, Bert Schramm, 12 August 1918

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Saturday, 4 June 2011 8:38 AM EADT
Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment, Roll of Honour, Gordon Gerald Harper
Topic: AIF - NZMRB - CMR


Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment

Roll of Honour

Gordon Gerald Harper


Gordon Gerald Harper


A brief biography of Gordon Gerald Harper extracted from the Cenotaph Database hosted by the Auckland Museum.


Full Name: Second Lieutenant Gordon Gerald Harper
Rank Last Held: Second Lieutenant
Forename(s): Gordon Gerald
Surname: Harper
Also Known As: Gerald Gordon Harper
War: World War I, 1914-1918
Serial No.: 7/516
Gender: Male
Date of Birth: 15 February 1885
Place of Birth: Christchurch, New Zealand
Religion: Roman Catholic
First Known Rank: Trooper
Occupation before Enlistment: Sheepfarmer
Next of Kin: George Harper, Hereford Street, Christchurch, New Zealand
Marital Status: Single
Enlistment Address: 10 Gloucester Street, Christchurch, New Zealand
Military District: Canterbury
Body on Embarkation: Main Body
Embarkation Unit: Canterbury Mounted Rifles
Embarkation Date: 16 October 1914
Place of Embarkation: Lyttelton, New Zealand
Vessel: Tahiti or Athenic
Destination: Suez, Egypt
Nominal Roll Number: Vol1
Page on Nominal Roll: 304
Military Awards:
  • Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM)
  • Mentioned in Despatches (MiD)
Award Circumstances:
  • Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM): For conspicuous gallantry between the 21st and the 30th August, 1915, at Kaiajik Aghala (Dardanelles), when in charge of machine guns. He invariably displayed great bravery and devotion to duty. L.G. 11 March 1916, p2746.
  • Mentioned in Despatches (MID): in connection with operations described in General I. hamilton's despatch dated 11 December 1915. L.G. 28 January 1916, p1210.
Last Unit Served: Canterbury Mounted Rifles
Place of Death: Egypt
Date of Death: 12 August 1916
Age at Death: 31
Year of Death: 1916
Cause of Death: Died of wounds
Cemetery Name: Cairo War Memorial Cemetery, Egypt
Grave Reference: M. 133.
Biographical Notes:
  • He was the sixth son of Mr George Harper of Christchurch, Barrister-at-law.
  • On the outbreak of war he enlisted in the New Zealand Mounted Rifles' Canterbury Yeomanry Cavalry and left New Zealand with the Main Body New Zealand Expeditionary Force in October, 1914.
  • He saw much service in Gallipoli with the Machine-gun section of the C.Y.C., was wounded during the operations following Suvla Bay landing in August, 1915, and was sent to hospital in England.
  • For his services during these operations he was awarded the D.C.M. and at about the same time, received his commission as machine-gun officer. After recovering from his wound he returned to Egypt in December 1915 and saw service in the operations on the Suez Canal up to the time of his death.
  • He died at Cairo on 12 August 1916 from wounds received at the fighting at Romani, Egypt.
Description of Image: Portrait from Powles, C.G. (1922).
Further References:
  • Boyack, Nicholas 'Behind the lines : the lives of New Zealand Soldiers in the First World War'
  • Alexander Turnbull Library MS Papers 1444; Letters 1914-15; Diary May-August 1915.
  • The Museum Library has a copy of 'Letters from Gunner 7/516 and Gunner 7/517' by Barbara Harper (Ref. D640) This is an edited edition of the letters written by these two soldiers during World War 1.
  • Military personnel file listed at Archives New Zealand. Search http://www.archway.archives.govt.nz for information about this person's Military Personnel File. Use the Simple Search option.
Additional Information: Listed incorrectly as George Gerald in the Nominal Rolls
Sources Used:


Lest we forget


Further Reading:

Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment

Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment, Roll of Honour

Battle of Romani, Sinai, August 4 to 5, 1916 

Bir el Abd, Sinai, 9 August 1916

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920


Citation: Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment, Roll of Honour, Gordon Gerald Harper

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Saturday, 12 September 2009 11:54 PM EADT
Monday, 11 August 2008
Signal, 26 April 1915, 8th LHR, Supply & Heliopolis
Topic: AIF - 3B - 3 LHB Sigs

One of the most complete set of Light Horse unit signals at Gallipoli belongs to the 3rd Light Horse Brigade. Signals provide a window into the unvarnished form of history. These are the comments made by people who had important needs that required immediate attention. As such, they tell a story about a campaign that existed before the occurence of the newspaper reports leading to the Official Histories and all the other works that followed. Since they do not originate in a vacuum, it is the immediacy of the signal in a dense communication transfer that gives it a unique currency. It is a moment in time. We need all the other items such as the War Diary, Routine Orders and lastly, the published books to get a fully appreciation of the humble signal.

To ensure that this appreciation is available to many, over the coming months, a series of signals will be posted commencing from April till December.

Signal, 26 April 1915 to 8th LHR regarding movements at Heliopolis

[Click on page for a larger print version.]

Citation: Signal, 26 April 1915, 8th LHR, Supply & Heliopolis

Posted by Project Leader at 12:48 PM EADT
Updated: Thursday, 14 August 2008 3:50 PM EADT
Topic: GW - Atrocities

Yücel Yanıkdağ, Ill-fated Sons of the Nation: Ottoman Prisoners of War in Russia and Egypt, 1914-1922.

Of more credibility in allegations of mistreatment of Ottoman POWs by British authorities is found in the unpublished doctoral dissertation submitted to Ohio State University in 2002 by Yücel Yanıkdağ called Ill-fated Sons of the Nation: Ottoman Prisoners of War in Russia and Egypt, 1914-1922, available on UMI Microfilms.

Yanıkdağ trots out the usual qualitative complaints of unfair treatment in that the German and Austrian POWs received preferential treatment and cites anecdotal evidence to substantiate his case. This is of course a matter of perception. The actual facilities given to the Ottoman POWs are a matter of record and to be found in the files of the POW camps. Food requisitions, roll numbers and sickness lists tend to be well documented as they all incurred an expense on the Imperial public purse and thus had to be carefully accounted. No on is able to prove one way or the other a qualitative charge but there is definite evidence of quantitative treatment and from the records, there appears to be little difference of treatment.

Of more substance in Yanıkdağ's thesis is the reliance of British statistics to make a further claim. Yanıkdağ at p. 150 goes to Statistics of the Military Effort, 1914-1920, (London: HMSO,1922), and cites pp. 630, and 635.

Here is the charge: The Imperial British forces held 150,041 Ottoman POWs during the Great War. Of this number, 10,742 Ottoman POWs died from various reasons. Now for the kicker. The British Statistics clearly state that the most common cause of death amongst the Ottoman POWs was pellagra disease. This insidious killer was specifically caused by a niacin deficiency. And here Yanıkdağ thinks he is on a winner as this is finally a qualitative charge. Yanıkdağ compares the death rate by this disease with the Ottoman POWs which came to 7.1% while the Austrian and German POWs suffered mortality rates of 2.9% and 2.6% respectively. Yanıkdağ believed that this was conclusive quantitative evidence of preferential treatment, especially in matters of diet.

While it may appear to be the ace in the hole, the reality of pellagra  is a bit different. The onset of pellagra requires about four to five years to become fatal. Since the bulk of the prisoners were taken in 1918 and released in 1920, a two year window at best, it is difficult to understand the process of food being the determinant. It would appear as though those who died of pellagra had already contracted the illness at least two or more years prior to captivity. This would not have been recognised by the British authorities who fed the Ottoman POWs the same rations their own troops received. There is no doubt that this was a dreadful diet which most people would find difficult to consume at the best of times. However, since the Ottoman POWs were afflicted with pellagra as a pre-existing illness and related to their pre-enlistment and service diet, it is disingenuous to lay the blame upon the Imperial authorities because they happened to be the last link in a chain. This was a fault of the Ottoman Government for failing to distribute a public health message regarding niacin deficiency to the general Ottoman population and thus prevent it in the home. It was a failure of the Ottoman armies to ignore the problem and provide a diet that was impoverished in niacin. The British authorities were the last link who also failed to do anything.

On this charge, there was nothing deliberate but a chain of neglect that originated in the various households of the Ottoman POWs prior to the war.

As for the differentiation in treatment between the Ottoman POWs and the Germans and Austrians as highlighted by the differential in death rates of pellagra, this may also be dismissed for similar reasons. The lower death rates of the Germans and Austrians had less to do with British teatment differentials and more to do with the pre war diet of the POWs.  The only conclusion that may be reached is that both the Germans and Austrians had diets rich in niacin prior to military service and thus were able to survive the rigours of the POW camp existence far better than the Ottoman POWs.

So superficially, it would appear Yanıkdağ may have an issue but when examined under the cold hard facts, Yanıkdağ's thesis says more about the appalling Ottoman public health program prior to the war than the treatment of Ottoman POWs in British camps.

Citation: Pellagra 

Posted by Project Leader at 11:53 AM EADT
Updated: Wednesday, 25 February 2009 6:40 AM EAST

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The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre has made every endeavour to contact copyright holders of material digitised for this blog and website and where appropriate, permission is still being sought for these items. Where replies were not received, or where the copyright owner has not been able to be traced, or where the permission is still being sought, the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre has decided, in good faith, to proceed with digitisation and publication. Australian Light Horse Studies Centre would be happy to hear from copyright owners at any time to discuss usage of this item.


Australian Light Horse Studies Centre

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