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"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre aims to present an accurate history as chroniclers of early Australian military developments from 1899 to 1920.

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre site holds over 12,000 entries and is growing daily.

Contact: Australian Light Horse Studies Centre

Let us hear your story: You can tell your story, make a comment or ask for help on our Australian Light Horse Studies Centre Forum called:

Desert Column Forum

WARNING: This site contains: names, information and images of deceased people; and, language which may be considered inappropriate today.

Thursday, 20 November 2008
Diaries of AIF Servicemen, Bert Schramm, 20 November 1918
Topic: Diary - Schramm

Diaries of AIF Servicemen

Bert Schramm

20 November 1918


Bert Schramm


2823 Private Herbert Leslie SCHRAMM, a 22 year old Farmer from Whites River, South Australia. He enlisted on 17 February 1916; and at the conclusion of the war Returned to Australia, 10 July 1919.

During part of the course of his military service with the AIF, Bert Schramm kept a diary of his life. Bert was not a man of letters so this diary was produced with great effort on his behalf. Bert made a promise to his sweetheart, Lucy Solley, that he would do so after he received the blank pocket notebook wherein these entries are found. As a Brigade Scout since September 1918, he took a lead part in the September Offensive by the Allied forces in Palestine. Bert's diary entries are placed alongside those of the 9th Light Horse Regiment to which he belonged and to the 3rd Light Horse Brigade to which the 9th LHR was attached. On this basis we can follow Bert in the context of his formation.


The Diaries

The complete diary is now available on the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre Site at:

Bert Schramm Diary

Finding more about a service person. See:

Navigating the National Archives Service File 



Bert Schramm's Handwritten Diary, 17 - 23 November 1918

[Click on page for a larger print version.]

Bert Schramm

Wednesday, November 20, 1918

Bert Schramm's Location - Mejdelaya, Tripoli

Bert Schramm's Diary -  Still no news and the general belief is that we are to be kept here for some time.


9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Mejdelaya, Tripoli

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Ordinary camp routine. Lane, Lieutenant BGB, detailed to carry out duties of regimental transport officer.

9th LHR AIF War Diary, 20 November



Darley, TH, With the Ninth Light Horse in the Great War, Adelaide, Hassell Press, 1924.

No Entry



Previous:  Bert Schramm's Diary, 19 November 1918

Next:  Bert Schramm's Diary, 21 November 1918

Sources Used:

Bert Schramm's Diary

National Archives Service File.

Embarkation Roll, AWM8.

Australian War Memorial Roll of Honour

Nominal Roll, AWM133, Nominal Roll of Australian Imperial Force who left Australia for service abroad, 1914-1918 War.


War Diaries and Letters

All War Diaries and letters cited on this site should be read in conjunction with the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre, War Diaries and Letters, Site Transcription Policy which may be accessed at:

Australian Light Horse Studies Centre, War Diaries and Letters, Site Transcription Policy 


Further Reading:

Bert Schramm Diary

Bert Schramm Diary, Album

Bert Schramm's Photo Album

9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, AIF

9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, War Diary, Day by Day Account

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920


Citation: Diaries of AIF Servicemen, Bert Schramm, 20 November 1918

Posted by Project Leader at 7:18 PM EAST
Updated: Sunday, 12 June 2011 4:36 PM EADT
9th LHR AIF War Diary, 20 November
Topic: AIF - 3B - 9 LHR

9th LHR, AIF

9th Light Horse Regiment

War Diary, 20 November

Pro Gloria et Honore - For Glory and Honour

Regimental March -  Marching Through Georgia



The following entries are extracted and transcribed from the 9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary, the originals of which are held by the Australian War Memorial. There are 366 entries on this site. Each day has entries as they occurred from 1914 to 1919. In addition to the 9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary, when appropriate, entries from the 3rd Light Horse Brigade War Diary and other regiments with the Brigade will also appear. Entries from the unit history, Darley, TH, With the Ninth Light Horse in the Great War, Adelaide, Hassell Press, 1924 will also appear from time to time. The aim is to give the broadest context to the story and allow the reader to follow the day to day activities of the regiment. If a relative happened to have served in the regiment during the Great War, then this provides a general framework in which the individual story may be told.


The Diary



Friday, November 20, 1914

9th Light Horse Regiment Location -  Morphettville Race Course Camp and Broadmeadows Camp, Victoria. 

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Formation of Regiment occurring at Morphettville Race Course Camp, Adelaide, while "C" Squadron is formed at Broadmeadows Camp, Victoria.

See: Broadmeadows 1909



Saturday, November 20, 1915

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Rhododendron Spur

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary -  Regimental Headquarters Bivouac was shelled today. One man, 11/507 Gaen, F was wounded in the stomach and evacuated. Daily slate shows 12 Officers 270 Other Ranks, Total 282. Bayonet strength 179 Other Ranks.



Monday, November 20, 1916

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Bir Etmaler

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Patrols from Romani to Pelusium and Romani to Kilo 48 and back to report any serious cracks in pipe line.



Tuesday, November 20, 1917

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - 2,000 yards north west Junction Station.

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Bivouacked in Square F21. Hargrave, Lieutenant LMS, with patrol proceeded to El Kubab but failed to gain touch with C Squadron. Wagg, Lieutenant BSW, marched in from Moascar.



Wednesday, November 20, 1918

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Mejdelaya, Tripoli

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Ordinary camp routine. Lane, Lieutenant BGB, detailed to carry out duties of regimental transport officer.



Thursday, November 20, 1919

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Adelaide

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Regiment disbanded.



Previous: 9th LHR AIF War Diary, 19 November

Next: 9th LHR AIF War Diary, 21 November



See: 9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Contents
Australian Light Horse Studies Centre, AIF War Diaries of the Great War, Site Transcription Policy


Further Reading:

9th Light Horse Regiment AIF

Bert Schramm Diary

9th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Roll of Honour 

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920


Citation: 9th LHR AIF War Diary, 20 November

Posted by Project Leader at 5:01 PM EAST
Updated: Sunday, 12 June 2011 4:41 PM EADT
Colonel Husnu, Yildirim, Page 136
Topic: Tk - Bks - Yildirim

Another entry from the book written by Lieutenant Colonel Hüseyin Hüsnü Emir, called Yildirim. Every day, one page of the book will be posted. This is Page 136.

Colonel Hüsnü, Yildirim, Page 136.

[Click on page for a larger print version.]


This chapter deals with Hüsnü observations of the Turkish response to Beersheba on other parts of the battlefield.


Further Reading:

List of all Yildirim pages


Citation: Colonel Hüsnü, Yildirim, Page 136

Posted by Project Leader at 3:40 PM EAST
Updated: Thursday, 20 November 2008 4:05 PM EAST
Wednesday, 19 November 2008
Mena Camp
Topic: Egypt - Mena

Mena Camp

The largest camp established was based upon Mena House and its surrounds. Mena House was a luxuary hotel built next to the Pyramids of Giza supplied with its own purpose built tramline to Cairo.


Mena House facing the Pyramids

[From:  Goldmanoz]

During the Great War, Mena House was converted into a hospital which quickly filled when the casualties from Gallipoli began to pour in.

Mena House with Hospital Patients, 1915
[From: poinky7]

A great big circus was the first impression most men thought when they saw Mena. A few big tops dominated the area while bristling around them were many supporting tents. Running through the centre of the camp from the entrance to the water tanks was Artillery Road. The main points around Mena Camp had already gained familiar and yet peculiar names. The various areas were called such names as Observation Hill, Rockwell Valley, Jackall Valley, Sentry Point, White House, Brown Ridge, Boojun Rocks, Grey Hill, Tuin Points, Tiger's Tooth, Cairn Ridge, Dolly Daydream and Crosspath Hill. New chums had to know these areas quickly as all directions were given with reference to them.

Flowing over the camp roads was a vibrant and living stream composed from a multitude of camels and donkeys. Urging on each of these beasts around the camp walked a motley army of drivers coming from all parts of the British Empire. There were Indians, Nubians, Egyptians, Arabs and Palestinians. They strained and sweated along with their animals to bring into the camp the tremendous quantity of stores required to keep the soldiers fully supplied.

Mena Camp under the shadow of the Pyramids

At the entrance of the camp a whole township had risen almost over night which was dedicated to serving the troops at Mena. Everything was on sale: foods, coffee, liquor, postcards, and four cinemas that featured the very latest of Hollywood releases even before they reached Australia. The buildings were constructed from any available materials such as hessian, corrugated iron and more substantial stone. The streets and ally ways were filled with the sounds of the vendors touting for business while the multitude of different aromas gave the nose a range of sensations from enjoyment to disgust all in the space of a minute.

“For The Allies Sargents Restaurant” outside Mena Camp

Other items which added to the bizarre landscape confronted by the men were the multitudes of camouflage colour schemes used for the various wagons and guns that regularly raced through the camp on some or another important mission. They were painted in reds, blues and yellows representing all the colours that allowed them to blend into the desert. For the newly arriving men the vehicles appeared to belong more in a circus sideshow rather than at as serious vehicles of war.

3rd Light Horse Brigade Lines at Mena

The seemingly mandatory activity that every soldier participated in was getting a picture taken of them on a camel by the Pyramids. For a fee, the men would have their photographs taken by one of the dozen photographic studios on site. This was the first activity indulged in by these men at Mena.

The mandatory "in front of the Pyramids on a camel" picture

Many tens of thousands of men had this similar picture taken of them while Mena Camp was the primary Australian base. After the Australians moved out and the camp ceased to operate, this was still a popular destination for all troops passing through Egypt.


Additional Reading:

The last tram to Mena 


Map of Cairo and Allied Camp locations 


 Citation: Mena Camp

Posted by Project Leader at 5:08 PM EAST
Updated: Wednesday, 19 November 2008 5:09 PM EAST
The Army Post Office delivering the mail
Topic: AIF - Misc Topics

The AIF Postal Service

1st Light Horse Brigade Field Post Office at Mena, c. 1914-15.

[From: AWM PS0523]

In an effort to assist in the correct delivery of letters, the Army Post Office embarked upon a campaign of public information on an Australian wide basis. During November 1918, this detailed press release was sent to many metropolitan and regional newspapers to aleviate some of the harsh criticisms upon the postal service.


The Army Post Office - How Our Soldiers' Mail is Delivered.

Criticism is a valuable asset in all work when the critic is aware of the nature and conditions governing such work. It is a foolish and dangerous thing when backed by mere prejudice and ignorance. Complaints against the Army Postal Service has been rife, and since most of the statements made have sprung from an unavoidable ignorance of certain main facts, it is advisable to set the Army Postal proceedings clearly before the members of the A.I.F. and their relatives and friends.

The Australian Army Postal Service was instituted as a direct Australian connecting link between members of the Australian Imperial Force and their relatives and friends. The charge of maladministration is sometimes levelled against the Army Postal Service for non-delivery of mail, but more often than not the fault is incorrect addressing.

A civil Post Office delivers mail placed in its charge at the address stated thereon, and when that cannot be done, returns those articles to the senders. Such is the general postal scheme throughout the world in normal times, and the same scheme is adopted in war by all nations engaged in the present struggle, except the Anzac Postal Corps. The Australian Postal Service is more than a post office. It is a combination of post office and Missing Friends Bureau. It not only delivers the mail to the location stated on the address, but if the soldier is not there, sets out to find him. Delivery will ultimately be effected unless the soldier is killed, "missing,” or absent without leave. This is made possible by a novel re-direction organisation instituted at the Australian Army Post Office, London.

Australia has the most difficult postal work of all Army Postal Services. Distance means time - the A.I.F. soldier writes from France, states his unit, many months elapse before the answering letter arrives - and much has happened in France during that time. Probably the soldier has changed his rank, unit, and location several times. Before he rejoins a fighting unit is often a period of many changes. He is wounded and goes to the Field Ambulance, Casualty Clearing Station, Base Hospital, on to the English Hospital, Convalescent Home, furlough, training camp, across to France, and possibly, eventually to a different unit in France. The postal service follows him doggedly and finds him. You have only to ask those who have been there. There are few complaints of postal work from the army - they know!

Often the personnel of a military unit and its location change daily, according to military exigencies. Mail items can only show the soldier's number, rank, name, initials, company and unit. No mention of brigade or location must be made for military reasons. The army postal service has to make good these deficiencies and deliver the goods.

The approximate volume of mail for the A.I.F. is some two million mail items per month. This is first delivered to the Base Post Office in bulk, where it is sorted, grouped, addresses are corrected, and the mail directed to its correct location and despatched for delivery. This entails employment to a large staff of girls, the supervising work being done by soldiers unfit for active service. Card index records are kept, where on every change to the soldier's designation of location is entered. These changes average over 62,000 monthly. A new system enables all mail arriving for the one solder to be "grouped" and delivered in one bundle. All addresses are checked with the card records, and the mail then despatched to the location shown on the man's card.

This checking of the soldier's designation and location prior to despatch is necessary owing to the great distance of Australia and the constant movement and change of personnel. At least 50 per cent of the mail arrives in London incorrectly addressed. There are still cases in which the mail does not reach the addressee at the first "try,” owing to his having been wounded or transferred from his unit during the period in which mail is en route to him from the base post office, London. This mail is returned to London, and even more elaborate efforts made to "find" the addressee. The Australian army post office has only 4 per cent of undeliverable mail left on its hand - part of which is due to wrong addresses given intentionally.

Postal system for parcels is different to that of all other mail. Those from Australia arrive by an "all sea" route, and thus take longer to reach the B.P.O. than letter mail coming via America. Often letters advising the despatch of parcels will arrive one month before the parcel.

When parcels are bagged in Australia, duplicate lists are made out, one of which is forwarded to London by letter mail, and the other enclosed in the mail bag. Thus the list arriving in London can be verified by postal records before the parcels actually arrive. Owing to this system, only 1.12 per cent of all parcels are now found to be undeliverable, and this fine record is achieved without loss of time in delivering the parcels. A great number of articles, whose non-delivery has aroused criticism, never had a chance of either delivery or return. If people will insist on sending such perishable goods as eggs, boiled chicken, cake, fruit, and other food stuffs in canvas bags or cardboard boxes by post, the non-delivery of such parcels cannot be wondered at. The contents become broken and decompose completely, the boxes fall to pieces and obliterate addresses on many other parcels.

Undeliverable parcels for men killed or missing are opened at the Base post office and the contents handed to the Australian Comforts Fund, except any contents of sentimental value, which are returned to the sender, the authority for this being War Precautions Regulation 64c.

Then there are submarines, and mail matter is sometimes lost in the field - the wonder is that the occasions are not more frequent. Enemy artillery drop shells into places least expected and some of these happen to have been field post offices. A "Fritz" shell is no respecter of material or persons. A direct hit usually means the total destruction of quarters, staff and mail.

The Army Postal Service gets blamed for many errors of which it is entirely innocent. A soldier get lazy and lax in his correspondence and "lets himself down" by blaming the post office. It does not matter to him if this brings indignant official letter of complaint from Australia. In all armies there are periods in some soldiers' lives when they cannot give their location - detention barracks, prisoners, etc and certain hospitals are necessary adjuncts to every army. Being unable to state his correct location a wrong one is given and thus another "train" or misdirected mail is started.

Every mail item that is not delivered at the first "try" is returned and referred to the Investigation section at the base post office, London, who “report” direct to the Director. This is one of the most important of the new procedures in army postal work. It is the detective of the army posts - collecting evidence of wrong addressing, circulation, records, etc, and driving home the blame either to the sender, postal staff, or postal organisation. Its effect is a dual one - first to effect delivery of the mail items; secondly, to censure the postal staff at fault, or to alter a weakness disclosed in postal systems. By this means the army postal service has been rejuvenated, and the staff now work at a high pitch of efficiency under an organisation well adapted to the difficult work it undertakes.

There are many ways in which you can help the army postal work. Here are some suggestions for people sending mail to members of the A.I.F. abroad:-

Be reasonable in the amount of mail you despatch.

Ask your friends overseas to state in every letter their exact address.

Then address all mail direct to the soldier - at that address - not care of some friend or institution.

State clearly the full address, similar to this sample -

No. 1153,
Trooper Nonesuch, A.B.,
"C" Sqn.,
4th Light Horse Regiment,
Australian Imperial Force.

The above is the correct form of addressing. The writing should be clear and distinct.

The first letter of the surname should be in block style, in order to facilitate alphabetical sorting.

The wording should be kept well down on the envelope, in order that the top portion may be well clear of the surcharge stamp which runs across the top of the envelope.

By writing small and clearly, sufficient space will be left for the re-direction which may have to be added by the Australian Base Post Office, London.

By observing the above instructions you will insure the correct delivery of the mail and facilitate army postal work.

Don't fail to appreciate that correct addresses are essential and that if you will guarantee the correct address the army postal service will do the rest.

Don't use the abbreviation B.E.F. or A.I.F. The former (B.E.F.) is likely to carry the mail item to a British unit of similar designation and the latter (A.I.F.) may be confused with the American title "A.E.F.” The word "Australian" written in full must form part of every address.

Don't advise by letter that parcels have gone from Australia to France until such are well on their way.

Don't say you have posted a parcel when it has been handed to the Battalion or Comforts Fund for delivery.

Don’t send perishable foods in insecurely packed parcels going overseas.

Don't lower the morale of our soldiers by writing "Complaining" letters - the boys deserve to be kept cheerful.

Don’t think because it’s Australian its no good. Compare the postal services of the Allies, and you will find that the Australian postal service is the most difficult, but goes further in its systems and delivers a higher percentage of mail than any other. Replace criticism and blame by commendation, it is a fairer return for all the care, energy and forethought displayed by the A.I.F. postal service in their endeavours to serve you and the A.I.F. under the most difficult conditions.

Remember there is a war on, and the army mails are not delivered in the peaceful surroundings enjoyed by our critics. Let the public survey army postal work through the large end of a telescope and the work of fighting through the small end, and they will get a true perspective of the relative importance of the two.


Even though the Great War ended in the very month this press release was distributed. For the Light Horse, it would be almost another year before the majority would return home.

Light Horse Postal Statistics

The Australian Military Post Office servicing the Light Horse was comprised of one officer and 57 men. On a weekly basis, the Australian forces in the Light Horse received 632 Letter bags and 1,339 Parcel bags making a total of 1,971 bags of mail. Similarly, the Light Horsemen and their supports sent about 42,000 letters to Australia every week. Over the whole period of the Middle East campaign through the Sinai, Palestine and Syria, Australian Light Horsemen and their support staffsent some three million letters to Australia.

[From: Rachwalsky, E & Harrison, DF, "The postal history and postmarks of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (E.E.F.) with special reference to Palestine", BAPIP Bulletin, No. 30, 1958, p. 7.]


Further Reading:

Letters from 1914 to 1918


Citation: The Army Post Office delivering the mail

Posted by Project Leader at 4:34 PM EAST
Updated: Wednesday, 19 November 2008 5:02 PM EAST

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