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"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre aims to present an accurate history as chroniclers of early Australian military developments from 1899 to 1920.

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Tuesday, 11 November 2008
11 November 1918, Celebrations for the Armistice, Peace Declared in Sydney
Topic: GW - 11 Nov 1918

11 November 1918

Celebrations for the Armistice

Peace Declared in Sydney


Martin Place filled with a jubilant crowd - mostly comprised of women.

[From: Sydney Mail, 13 November 1918, p. 19.]


SYDNEY was thrown into a seething whirlpool of excitement on Friday by the announcement that Germany had agreed to the terms of the armistice offered by Marshal Foch and that hostilities had already ceased. It was early in the morning when the cablegram came through, and the news spread like wild-fire. The fact that it lacked official confirmation counted for little in the minds of people thoroughly convinced, that, even if the signatures of the parties had not yet been actually appended to the document, that act could not possibly be long delayed. The pent-up feelings of four weary years at last found vent; and the result was one of the most memorable days in the history of Sydney. The sirens of the harbour, in a weird medley such as has rarely been heard from the waters of Port Jackson, proclaimed that something of vast importance had occurred; and the shrieking of railway whistles, the clanging of tram bells, the hooting of motor-horns, the rattling of tins, and none: every conceivable kind combined to make a terrific din which everybody welcomed because it represented a paean of victory. A little later brass bands joined up, and there was vociferous cheering everywhere, while innumerable mechanical contrivances added still greater variety and volume to the sounds. The streets were speedily thronged as if by magic the city became enwrapped by gay bunting, and nearly everybody waved a flag. Work was out of the question. Factories, shops, and offices were practically deserted. Hatless girls, and men both old and young, poured out of their places of business and formed processions on foot through the streets, or, mounting lorries, drays, motor cars, and any and every sort of conveyance that happened along, moved slowly through the cheering crowds waving the banners and flags of the Allies and shouting patriotic songs. Early in the day the public-houses were dosed, and some of the large shops barricade heir windows, fearing that the pressure of the vast crowds might damage them. The newspaper offices towards mid-day posted bills announcing that the signing of the armistice had been officially denied. This temporarily damped the public ardour, but enthusiasm speedily again ran riot, and the posters were torn down. Official or not, what did it matter? Germany would be compelled to give in, and a day or two would make little difference. And, after all, was not the news from the front, news apart from the armistice, sufficiently stirring to justify public rejoicings? That was the general feeling and the celebration continued far into the night.  Throughout it was marked only by the utmost goodwill.


A spontaneous street celebration.

[From: Sydney Mail, 13 November 1918, p. 19.]


Friday, 12 November 1918 was a day to remember for all Sydney citizens. It was the day to let loose all the emotions and grasp the joy of peace. This day was one of celebration. The next day was the sober reflection on where things would go. But that was tomorrow's worry. Today was sheer joy.


Further Reading:

11 November 1918, the Armistice

August 1914

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920


Citation: 11 November 1918, Celebrations for the Armistice, Peace Declared in Sydney

Posted by Project Leader at 10:14 PM EAST
Updated: Sunday, 31 January 2010 7:59 PM EAST
11 November 1918, Celebrations for the Armistice, Peace Declared in Adelaide
Topic: GW - 11 Nov 1918

11 November 1918

Celebrations for the Armistice

Peace Declared in Adelaide


The crowds in front of Parliament House listening to the Declaration of Peace.

[From: The Adelaide Chronicle,  16 November 1918, p. 26.]


Peace Declared in Adelaide

When peace was declared in Adelaide on the morning of 12 November 1918, the city filled with tens of thousands of people. 

The crowd is filled with all different people displaying the whole range of human emotions, the key being relief. The crowd is pressing in on the thin line of police who appear to be uncomfortable with the crush. One piece of whimsy is the fellow holding an American flag in the foreground. Each face in this crowd has a specific story to tell about the war and the impact of the war upon that life.

The full story of peace was something to be savoured slowly and sweetly. Below is the page detailing all the information for the news hungry people in Adelaide.

From the Adelaide Advertiser, 12 November 1918, p. 5:




Never in the history of South Australia has such a tremendous crowd assembled in King William Street, opposite the Town Hall as on Monday night when the glorious news of the signing of the armistice was made public. It was, anticipated that historic cablegram would arrive probably about 10 o'clock, and the majority of the 30,000 to 40,000 people who were gathered together in the thoroughfare between the Majestic Theatre and the General Post-Office delayed their arrival at the rendezvous until about 9 o'clock. Shortly after 7 o'clock a special edition of "The Express" was published, long before any other paper was on sale, announcing that Germany had signed the armistice terms, and the crowds who were on their way to the places of amusement either altered their minds and remained in the streets or spent only part of the evening in the halls. It was fully 9 o'clock before the trains packed with passengers from all the suburbs began to discharge their living freight at the city terminals, and by 10 o'clock King William street was alive with men and women, boys and girls, all gloriously happy and bent on giving expression to their feelings of joy in any form which suited the moment. The enthusiasm was unbounded, everybody seemed to have let loose a flood of delight, it was sight never to be forgotten. The war had ended: the people know it, and they were intoxicated with joy, but, although such a vast throng joined in the patriotic displays and made merry as befitted the occasion, there was not the slightest exhibition of bad behaviour. It was an intensely loyal, happy, and thankful crowd, every unit of which desired to give voice to his or her feelings in the most becoming way. A great deal of the wonderful enthusiasm was worked up by that popular patriotic worker, Mr "Sammy" Lunn, who led contingents of merrymakers up and down the street singing patriotic songs, but at the same time there was no need for any special encouragement. The people were in a joyful mood and were powerless to restrain their emotions.


After many years of grim news and sorrow filling the lives of relatives left in Australia, the comforting information in the newspaper assures the citizens of Adelaide that the nightmare is over. The relief is palpable in every sentence written on this page. It was a happy time for all.

The newspapers also began to reflect on the meaning that this information held for the citizens of Adelaide. Many issues needed to be addressed. The sobering reality was that casualty lists were still arriving and would continue to do so for nearly another year.


Further Reading:

11 November 1918, the Armistice

August 1914

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920


Citation: 11 November 1918, Celebrations for the Armistice, Peace Declared in Adelaide

Posted by Project Leader at 9:20 AM EAST
Updated: Sunday, 31 January 2010 7:58 PM EAST
11 November 1918, Celebrations for the Armistice, Kerr Account
Topic: GW - 11 Nov 1918

11 November 1918

Celebrations for the Armistice

Kerr Account


2825 Private Peter William Kerr

[From: Wynn, NI, Behind the Lines, p.1.]


Narelle Wynn writes: "This recording of his stories took place in July 1983, 6 months before he died in February 1984, while I was home from England for 3 months. Spoken by Peter William Kerr and written by Narelle Wynn,

Wynn, NI, Behind the Lines, Brisbane 1997, p. 46:

More military discipline, you not supposed to be sick. We didn't last long before they put us into a couple of barges and sent us off down to Port Said to our own hospital. The morning after I was discharged out of GBH, that was the morning Armistice was signed, 11 November 1918.

And we were about half way across the canal in a rowing boat, about 4 of us in this boat with a Egyptian going over to the convalescence camp in Port Said. We never got any news we didn't know what was happening. Not like today, you get the news before it happens. There we were half away across the canal and holy sailor, the whole of the canal went up. Shotguns were shooting, guns were roaring, whistles were blowing. We said. "What the bloody hells going on?" We thought that a sudden attack occurred. We didn't know what the hell had happened. The old Egyptian didn't know whether to jump over board or not. He didn't know what the hell to do. We didn't know what had happened until we got to the other side. It was quite a step across the canal there, it had been widened out, we found out afterwards that the Armistice had been signed "

Our convalescence camp was just in the suburb of Port Said. We were just on edge, just off the main street just a couple of yards. And we were poor as crows and hungry as dogs.



Wynn, NI, Behind the Lines, Brisbane 1997.


Further Reading:

11 November 1918, the Armistice

August 1914

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920


Citation: 11 November 1918, Celebrations for the Armistice, Kerr Account

Posted by Project Leader at 8:31 AM EAST
Updated: Sunday, 31 January 2010 5:57 PM EAST
2439 Pte William Nicholld, 11th LHR, Lesson 11 Resource
Topic: AIF - Aboriginal LH


Education Centre

The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre in conjunction with the various Education authorities in Australia, has embarked upon producing a program of instruction targeted initially towards the Later Adolescence band of scholars, characteristically those who are studying in Year 9 and 10 within Australia. Each lesson will be a self contained module. Some will be more difficult than others and graded accordingly.


Lesson 11 Aboriginal Light Horsemen

Resource - Light Horseman Service Record - Essential Pages

2439 Pte William Nicholld,  11th Light Horse Regiment, 20th Reinforcement



2439 Pte William Nicholld, Attestation Paper, p. 1.

[Click on document for larger version.]

The front cover of the Attestation Paper of Persons Enlisted for Service Abroad provides the reader with the following information:

  • Service Number,
  • Surname,
  • Given Names,
  • Age,
  • Employment,
  • Married or Single,
  • Next of Kin Relationship,
  • Next of Kin Name and Address,
  • Enlistment Date.

This information is vital as it identifies the specific soldier and in case of death or injury, allows the relatives to be informed. The next of kin was important for another reason. Each soldier was compelled to give an allotment of their daily wage to the person nominated as the next of kin. This was an essential financial consideration.

Once this information was gathered, the second page dealt with an oath to the King. The next page to give information was page 3.



2439 Pte William Nicholld, Attestation Paper, p. 3

[Click on document for larger version.]

The third page of the Attestation Paper of Persons Enlisted for Service Abroad provides the reader with the following information:

  • Height,
  • Weight,
  • Chest Measurement
  • Complexion,
  • Eyes,
  • Hair, 
  • Religion.

The health of the potential soldier was important as the life was particularly strenuous. The ability to carry heavy weights for great distances was most important.

The next form that is most common in the Service File is the B103, the  Casualty Form - Active Service. Every movement of the soldier is recorded. The reasons for this are fourfold.

1. The location of the soldier at any one time was essential to establish where his rations were to be drawn.

2.  The form established the entitlements to drawing pay at a particular level. A soldier in the field was allowed to draw pay but when in hospital was not allowed to draw their pay as it was considered that everything to assist the soldier's recovery was provided.

3.  By tracking the movements of the soldier, it allowed early detection of desertion if that were to occur.

4. At the end of the war, the chronology of this form was used as the basis for post war entitlements such as medals, pensions, repatriation assistance, access to hospitals and any other service available for an ex-serviceman for the rest of his life.

The B103 may be as simple as one sheet or multiple sheets. It depended upon the individual serviceman.

To assist in understanding this particular form in relation to the men from the 11th LHR, Lesson 11 Resource, a list of terms and names are available at the Index to Common B103 Terms. The link is below.

2439 Pte William Nicholld, B103, p. 1.

[Click on document for larger version.]

The front of the B103, the  Casualty Form - Active Service provides the reader with the following information:

  • Regiment
  • Rank on Enlistment,
  • Terms of Enlistment,
  • Embarkation Date,
  • Embarkation Port,
  • Embarkation Ship,
  • Date Taken on Strength.

As can be seen, the form is a chronology of the man's service in the AIF. All B103 forms in every service file is similar. 

In this case the man has two pages to the form. To finish his story, the page will be turned over. 

2439 Pte William Nicholld, B103, p. 2.

[Click on document for larger version.]

The back of the B103, the  Casualty Form - Active Service provides the reader with the following information:

  • Chronology,
  • Fate,
  • Date.

Once the B103, the  Casualty Form - Active Service was completed due to the expiration of service, any transactions during subsequent to service were recorded on a flimsey called Transferred to Australian Imperial Force D and it was here that all post service information was maintained.

2439 Pte William Nicholld, AIF D, p. 1.

[Click on document for larger version.]


Page 1 of the Transferred to Australian Imperial Force D provides the reader with the following information:

  • The last rank held in the AIF,
  • The date of Discharge,
  • The place where Discharged,
  • The eligible medals awarded to the serviceman.

Information on this form depends upon the individual. This particular form can at times run into many pages.


2439 Pte William Nicholld, a brief military biography from The AIF Project:


Regimental number2439
ReligionChurch of England
AddressCairns PO, Cairns, Queensland
Marital statusMarried
Age at embarkation25
Next of kinWife, Mrs flora Nicholld, Mission Station, Yarrabah via Cairns, North Queensland
Enlistment date18 August 1917
Rank on enlistmentPrivate
Unit name11th Light Horse Regiment, 20th Reinforcement
AWM Embarkation Roll number10/16/3
Embarkation detailsUnit embarked from Sydney, New South Wales, on board HMAT A38 Ulysses on 19 December 1917
Rank from Nominal RollPrivate
Unit from Nominal Roll11th Light Horse Regiment
FateReturned to Australia 20 July 1919


Additional Research:

To understand the terms employed in the B103, the  Casualty Form - Active Service, an index is available here:

Index to Common B103 Terms

For those interested in further study on this man, the following internet resources are available:

ADFA Summary - This is a cameo summary of his service record.


National Archives - This is the complete service file of 2439 Pte William Nicholld


Australian War Memorial

The Australian War Memorial carries two biographical data bases - the Embarkation Roll and the Nominal Roll which was closed in August 1919.

Embarkation details:


Nominal Roll:


Further Reading:

Other Aboriginal Servicemen

Pte Tom Cooper

2919 Pte Alfred John Henry Lovett

2430 Pte John Johnston, 11th LHR

Listing of Aboriginal Servicemen Biographies on this site

Other related items 

Reveille Articles on Aboriginals in the AIF

11th Light Horse War Diary Index for 1918 - 1919, Lesson 11 Resource

11th LHR, AIF account about the 2nd Es Salt Raid - March to May 1918, Chapter XVI

11th LHR, AIF account about the Jordan Valley – May to August 1918, Chapter XVII


Citation: 2439 Pte William Nicholld, 11th LHR, Lesson 11 Resource

Posted by Project Leader at 1:01 AM EAST
Updated: Tuesday, 11 November 2008 9:13 PM EAST
Colonel Husnu, Yildirim, Page 127
Topic: Tk - Bks - Yildirim

Another entry from the book written by Lieutenant Colonel Hüseyin Hüsnü Emir, called Yildirim. Every day, one page of the book will be posted. This is Page 127.

Colonel Hüsnü, Yildirim, Page 127.

[Click on page for a larger print version.]


This chapter deals with Hüsnü observations of the Turkish response to Beersheba on other parts of the battlefield.


Further Reading:

List of all Yildirim pages

Full listing of all material about Beersheba on the blog


Citation: Colonel Hüsnü, Yildirim, Page 127

Posted by Project Leader at 1:01 AM EAST
Updated: Thursday, 13 November 2008 4:57 PM EAST

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