"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess
The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre aims to present an accurate history as chroniclers of early Australian military developments from 1899 to 1920.
The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre site holds over 12,000 entries and is growing daily.
The Lone Pine Memorial (Panel 9), Gallipoli, Turkey
The Lone Pine Memorial, situated in the Lone Pine Cemetery at Anzac, is the main Australian Memorial on Gallipoli, and one of four memorials to men of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. Designed by Sir John Burnet, the principal architect of the Gallipoli cemeteries, it is a thick tapering pylon 14.3 metres high on a square base 12.98 metres wide. It is constructed from limestone mined at Ilgardere in Turkey.
The Memorial commemorates the 3268 Australians and 456 New Zealanders who have no known grave and the 960 Australians and 252 New Zealanders who were buried at sea after evacuation through wounds or disease. The names of New Zealanders commemorated are inscribed on stone panels mounted on the south and north sides of the pylon, while those of the Australians are listed on a long wall of panels in front of the pylon and to either side. Names are arranged by unit and rank.
The Memorial stands over the centre of the Turkish trenches and tunnels which were the scene of heavy fighting during the August offensive. Most cemeteries on Gallipoli contain relatively few marked graves, and the majority of Australians killed on Gallipoli are commemorated here.
Panel number, Roll of Honour, Australian War Memorial
Nephew: 1676 Pte Wilfred William Adams CLARKE, 27th Bn, killed in action, Pozieres, France, 5 August 1916.
War service: Egypt, Gallipoli
Medals: 1914-15 Star, British War Medal, Victory Medal
Age given at enlistment was understated by 14 years.
Age at death
Place of burial
Andrew Powell Yeates(holding rifle) and his son James Yeates (foreground) in a funk hole at Walker's Ridge only days before the death of Yeates.
Death Notice for Andrew Powell Yeates, KIA Hill 60
[From: Adelaide Chronicle, 25 September 1915, p. 31.]
Diaries of AIF Servicemen, Bert Schramm, 30 August 1918 Topic: Diary - Schramm
Diaries of AIF Servicemen
30 August 1918
2823 Private Herbert Leslie SCHRAMM, a 22 year old Farmer from Whites River, South Australia. He enlisted on 17 February 1916; and at the conclusion of the war Returned to Australia, 10 July 1919.
During part of the course of his military service with the AIF, Bert Schramm kept a diary of his life. Bert was not a man of letters so this diary was produced with great effort on his behalf. Bert made a promise to his sweetheart, Lucy Solley, that he would do so after he received the blank pocket notebook wherein these entries are found. As a Brigade Scout since September 1918, he took a lead part in the September Offensive by the Allied forces in Palestine. Bert's diary entries are placed alongside those of the 9th Light Horse Regiment to which he belonged and to the 3rd Light Horse Brigade to which the 9th LHR was attached. On this basis we can follow Bert in the context of his formation.
The complete diary is now available on the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre Site at:
Nominal Roll, AWM133, Nominal Roll of Australian Imperial Force who left Australia for service abroad, 1914-1918 War.
War Diaries and Letters
All War Diaries and letters cited on this site should be read in conjunction with the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre, War Diaries and Letters, Site Transcription Policy which may be accessed at:
The following entries are extracted and transcribed from the 9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary, the originals of which are held by the Australian War Memorial. There are 366 entries on this site. Each day has entries as they occurred from 1914 to 1919. In addition to the 9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary, when appropriate, entries from the 3rd Light Horse Brigade War Diary and other regiments with the Brigade will also appear. Entries from the unit history, Darley, TH, With the Ninth Light Horse in the Great War, Adelaide, Hassell Press, 1924 will also appear from time to time. The aim is to give the broadest context to the story and allow the reader to follow the day to day activities of the regiment. If a relative happened to have served in the regiment during the Great War, then this provides a general framework in which the individual story may be told.
9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Gazli Beit Dere
9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - 1630 Inspected positions to be held by 3rd Light Horse Brigade on Rhododendron Ridge and Tabletop in company with the Brigade Major and Lieutenant Colonel P Abbott.
Bivouacked at Gazli Beit Dere with D Squadron 9th Light Horse Regiment [late “C” Squadron 11th Light Horse Regiment].
The 9th Regiment less D Squadron is at present in No 6 Section under General Cox and are not expected back until the 4th September 1915.
Bivouac under fire from 2000 to 2100.
Mule transport under Lieutenant Levingston when proceeding along the beach at 2200 was shelled. But no casualties.
3rd Light Horse Brigade War Diary - On 27 - 28 the 9th Light Horse Regiment were sent to capture position of a Turkish trench lost by a British Battalion. This they did [AB] the lost position being bombed out.
Same night Lieutenant Colonel Reynell 9th Light Horse attacked BC with Yeomen: He got into AB which was partly held by men of his Regiment[see C] then made for BC. This was shortly after midnight - he was seen to disappear with some of his men into some Turkish trenches. Some 20 afterwards were traced through Dressing Stations and four were wounded - the casualties reported as Lieutenant Colonel Reynell, Captain Callary, Captain Jaffray and 68 others =- this will probably be corrected later - on 28th -29th 9th Light Horse were again sent at the trench and link up with the 10th Light Horse which had about 0100.
The losses of the latter were, Killed Captain Fry, Second Lieutenant IC Burgess [wounded] CH MacBean and GA Leake killed and 3 others wounded 2nd Lieutenants Sanderson and Throssell, Other Ranks 54, Total 57.
The affair was a brilliant example of dash and courage as the Turks held some of the trenches and all in front from which with maxim fire, our men were bombed continuously, the captured Turkish trenches only 4 feet deep were nearly full of dead of both sides and these had to be cleared and deepened without any cover: Generals Cox, Godly and Russell spoke of the unit as very fine - Lieutenant Colonel Reynell was a splendid man and an exceptionally fine and dashing leader and his loss will be severely felt:
General Cox informs the Brigade that the post is so important that he will not contemplate the withdrawal of the 8th and 10th until the trenches have been made perfectly safe $$ and other troops broken into them. Hill 60 practically controls the North and East salients after another portion to its North has been taken. Under the new allotment and disposition of troops, 3rd Light Horse Brigade holds Table Top and the Northern slopes of Rhododendron and No 5 Section - $$ as and near the sea and the 1st Light Horse Brigade.
Extracts from Dispatch from Major WH Scott, Acting CO 9th Light Horse about recent operations:
Ninth Regiment arrived at Arshal Dere 2130 on 26th August and reported to General Cox and went into bivouac at 2200 and rested during 27th August till word came at 1900 to be prepared to send men to support General Russell who was in charge of part of attack on Knoll 60. , AAD at 2130. Second Lieutenant Phillis and 50 men were supplied and went into fire trench LF [see plan] towards right of sector, to assist New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade to hold trench then AAA.
At 2330 Major Parsons, Captain Jaffray and Temporary Second Lieutenant McDonald with 100 were supplied and twenty minutes late Captain Callary and 25 men were also sent AAA.
Of these last two parties, Major Parsons with 52 men of “A” Squadron bombed their way along fire trench BG to M, about 100 yards but had to retire about 20 yards and put up barricade at N AAA At 2430 Lieutenant Colonel Reynell, Captain Callary, Captain Jaffray and Temporary Second Lieutenant McDonald with about 75 men attempted to cross from D to E to join the New Zealanders there then fight their way along trench FG from N to G.
They appeared to lose direction in the scrub which abounds there and arrived at point C in trench BG which Major Parsons was holding. AAA They at once set out again for point E but came under a withering fire from rifles, a machine gun and bombs, and the party literally faded away. AAA Temporary Second Lieutenant McDonald, Squadron Sergeant Major Shaw and three men got back to safely and about twenty wounded crawled in. AAA One sergeant and fifteen men on right of party became detached and finally reached our trench about F. AAA Temporary Second Lieutenant McDonald after reaching safety then gallantly returned four times to the scene of disaster and brought in four wounded men. AAA Major Parson's party were then bombed back to P but when day broke fought back to C, his casualties altogether were about twenty. AAA During day of 27th both sides were quiet but a few men were hit by snipers. AAA At 0100 on 29th August, Temporary Second Lieutenant McDonald with a covering party fought their way with bombs to M and connected up with 10th Light Horse Regiment who had at the same time reached trench BGK from right and taken it. AAA Our men remained in trenches until 2100 when all except 25 were relieved. AAA The bodies of Lieutenant Colonel Reynell and Captain Jaffray were recovered on morning of 29th August and are being buried at 0900 today.
Major WH Scott, Acting CO, 9th Light Horse Regiment, 0800, 30 August 1915.
Wednesday, August 30, 1916
9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Hod Nabit
9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Received Operation Order from Brigade for the Regiment to move out ot Bayud in support of the Mobile Column who were to make a drive of the country from Bayud to Aweida and 513.
Regimental Operation Order issued and attached.
Thursday, August 30, 1917
9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Abasan el Kebir
9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Regiment carried out practice Dismounted Attack - 0630 to 0800. Three Other Ranks left to attend Shoeing School at Veterinary Hospital Belbeis.
Friday, August 30, 1918
9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Ludd area
9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Usual routine carried out. Thirty four reinforcements arrived from Moascar.
Preparations carried out for inspection of General Officer in Command 3rd Light Horse Brigade.
Saturday, August 30, 1919
9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Adelaide
9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - Regiment disbanded.
Regimental number : 50 Religion: Presbyterian Occupation: Labourer Address: Urana, New South Wales Marital status: Single Age at embarkation: 21 Next of kin: Stonehouse, Lanarkshire, Scotland Enlistment date: 10 September 1914 Rank on enlistment: Private Unit name: 1st Light Horse Regiment, C Squadron AWM Embarkation Roll number: 10/6/1 Embarkation details: Unit embarked from Sydney, New South Wales, on board Transport A16 Star Of Victoria on 20 October 1914 Rank from Nominal Roll: Regimental Quartermaster Sergaent Unit from Nominal Roll: 1st Light Horse Regiment Recommendations (Medals and Awards): Military Medal Recommendation date: 4 November 1917 Fate: Discharged 15 March 1919 Medals: Military Medal, 14/15 Star, British War Medal and Victory Medal
Of course, there is a bigger story behind this man than the bare facts reveal.
Born at Kittymuir Farm, Stonehouse, Lanarkshire, Scotland on the 30 December 1892, Hamilton grew up tough and resilient.
At the tender age of 16, in 1909, he sailed for New Zealand to find work. A few years later, in 1912, he enlisted as a volunteer in the New Zealand Territorial formation, the Otago Mounted Rifles based around the Dunedin region. The Otago Mounted Rifles was composed of the following regional squadrons: the Southland Mounted Rifles, the Otago Hussars, and the North Otago Mounted Rifles. Since Hamilton's bank account was located at Invercargill, it is reasonable to assume that was the region and town close to where he worked and lived. If that is so, then it is highly likely the Territorial squadron Hamilton served with was the 7th (Southland) Squadron, Otago Mounted Rifles.
Hamilton's first camp began in July 1912. A photographer was there to take a picture of this event.
Hamilton standing guard outside the Guard Tent on his first bivouac with the Otago Mounted Rifles.
Under the tent, various faces of men can be seen. These men include: Sergeant Paterson, Tpr Kerse, Tpr Turnbull, Tpr Edge, Tpr Watt, Cpl France, Buglar Paterson, and Cpl Kerse.
By 1914 Hamilton was working at Urana, NSW but was still a registered member of the Otago Mounted Rifles. When the Great War began, he was one of the very first men to put his name down to serve with the 1st Light Horse Regiment, then being formed and trained at Rosebery Park, Sydney. Hamilton was allocated the regimental number "50" on 28 August 1914 and allotted to the Machine Gun Section. However something happened which immpeded his enrolment to the regiment. Hamilton was obviously a man the officers wanted so his position was held open for him in the regiment although his place in the Machine Gun Section was taken by someone else. His problems seem to have been resolved by 11 October and duly allotted to the last squadron to be formed - "C" Squadron.
Routine Order No. 48, 14 October 1914 appointing Hamilton to "C" Squadron
After serving time in Egypt, the Light Horse volunteered to go to Gallipoli and fight as dismounted infantry. The 1st LHR embarked from Alexandria with 25 officers and 447 other ranks, 9 May 1915 on the HMAT Devonha for Gallipoli. The Regiment landed at 6.00am, 12 May 1915, some 200m south of Fisherman’s Hut, ANZAC Cove. Their place at Gallipoli involved work around Pope’s Hill where they remained for most of the campaign. The Regiment was evacuated from Gallipoli by 21 December1915 and sailed for Egypt.
Hamilton taking a snooze under his horse just before going into action.
Hamilton followed his regiment throughout the Sinai and Palestine campaigns. After the opening of the Third Battle of Gaza with the taking of Beersheba, the next objective was Tel el Khuweilfeh where a battle ensued for almost the next week. It was a difficult and tough fight whereby the attacking units were attempting to dislodge Ottoman forces which were well entrenched around hill tops. The hills themselves provided little cover for the attacking force and thus winning this battle was accompanied by outstanding bravery and sacrifice. It was here that Hamilton was awarded a Military Medal for bravery. The citation reads:
On 3rd November 1917 at Tel el Khuweilfeh this NCO took forward a Hotchkiss gun detachment to a forward flank position and considerably helped to keep down the enemy’s fire, and carried in a wounded man under very heavy fire. His coolness and bravery set a fine example to his men all day. Recommended by Lt Col Granville
On 12 November 1917 Hamilton was wounded in the neck at Jisr Esdud, a place north of Gaza. The wound was not serious enough to require evacuation so Hamilton remained on duty.
At the end of the war, Hamilton took UK leave and travelled to South Hampton on the HT Bermudian where he arrived 19 December 1918. Hamilton returned to Scotland and his parents in time for his 26th birthday, a five year veteran and a war hero. One can only imagine the jubilation in the Hamilton household in Stonehouse, Lanarkshire that Christmas and New Year. The next year, Hamilton applied for his discharge in the UK which was granted on 15 March 1919.
Hamilton displaying his passion for fishing.
He returned home to Stonehouse and married Annie Naismith (grandaughter of Robert Naismith author of Stonehouse Historical and Traditional) of Cross View. The couple established their family home at Hamilton Ferme at the Cross. They brought eight children into the world, they being Minnie, Robert, James, William, Ian, Douglas, Evelyn and Norman.
Hamilton, in partnership with his brother in law, James Watson of Thorndale, Manse Road, set up a bus company, The Admiral. They ran Lancier’s from Strathaven to Cathedral Street in Glasgow. Eventually they gave up the service due to the evil practice by competitors of running buses a few minutes before their scheduled service. This practice still occurs to this very day.
After the bus business, Hamilton took over High lanrig Farm for a year. With the completion of the Council houses built in Newfield Road, Hamilton moved his family into 4 Newfield Road, December 1927. He bred Greyhounds, and had kennels down at the oilworks under the viaduct. His best dog was Avonhope, a prolific winner and nick named "The rent payer". In pursuit of his passion Hamilton took on work with Sam Park of Lesmahagow and his business partner George Reid of Larkhall. His role was as the Racing Manager and Handicapper at Larkhall Greyhound Stadium. He held this job from 1936 until 1964 when it closed.
At the outbreak of the Second World War, Hamilton was appointed Section Commander of the Local Defence Force, No 5 Coy, No 22 Platoon Section 1. The platoon members names taken from his diary 26 August 1940 include David Brown, Alexander Bambrick, James Cryan, William C S Whitelaw, Henry McFarlane, David Finnie, George Harrison, Archibald Miller, David Miller, James Miller, Walter Mitchell, Henry Speirs, Andrew McLellan, Walter Lang, Thomas Moffat Hugh Boyle, John Whitelaw, and George Spence.
Hamilton’s four eldest enlisted in the armed forces
L/Cpl W/ 217659 Minnie Hamilton, 11 September 1942 to 9 March 1946 Auxiliary Territorial Service; Attached 606 (Mixed) Heavy Anti Aircraft Bty Royal Artillery; Plotter operator on gun sites, South Coast of England and Newhaven.
Cpl Robert Hamilton 1942 to 1947, Royal Artillery served in India and Burma
WO2 James Hamilton 1942 to 1947; 1 year Royal Artillery, 4 years Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, served in India
Lt Ian Hamilton 1944 to 1948; 1st Bn Seaforth Highlanders, served in India, Java and Malaya.
Hamilton retired in 1964, kept bee’s, went fishing and carried out maintenance on the vehicles of his sons fruit & veg business and did some handicapping for Shawfield Stadium. Robert Hamilton died in 1970.
Acknowledgement: Many thanks to the kind assistance of William Mackie, the grandson of Robert Hamilton who kindly provided the photographs and biographical details for this entry. Also thanks to Phil for providing the information regarding the Otago Mounted Rifles.
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