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"At a mile distant their thousand hooves were stuttering thunder, coming at a rate that frightened a man - they were an awe inspiring sight, galloping through the red haze - knee to knee and horse to horse - the dying sun glinting on bayonet points..." Trooper Ion Idriess

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Saturday, 27 June 2009
Light Horse, B103, Casualty Form - Active Service, Index to Common Terms
Topic: AIF - Lighthorse

Light Horse

B103, Casualty Form - Active Service

Index to Common Terms 


A typical B103 Form within a Service File


Index to Common B103 Terms

When examining the Light Horseman's Service File, one of the most common forms in the Service File is the B103, the Casualty Form - Active Service. Every movement of the soldier is recorded. The reasons for this are fourfold.

1. The location of the soldier at any one time was essential to establish where his rations were to be drawn.

2.  The form established the entitlements to drawing pay at a particular level. A soldier in the field was allowed to draw pay but when in hospital was not allowed to draw their pay as it was considered that everything to assist the soldier's recovery was provided.

3.  By tracking the movements of the soldier, it allowed early detection of desertion if that were to occur.

4. At the end of the war, the chronology of this form was used as the basis for post war entitlements such as medals, pensions, repatriation assistance, access to hospitals and any other service available for an ex-serviceman for the rest of his life.

The B103 may be as simple as one sheet or multiple sheets. It depended upon the individual serviceman.


Map from Cairo to Haifa

[Click on map for larger version.]

[Adapted From:  Melbourne Age, 6 February 1915, p. 11.]


Common B103 Terms



The numbers next to the towns refer to the numbers in the map above.

Abbassia - 1 - A major city precinct in Cairo. Many of the major Allied hospitals were located in this district.

Alexandria - 2 - The chief northern port located in the Nile Delta. 

Belah - 3 - Full name is Deir el Belah, a small village in Palestine about half way between Gaza and the Egyptian - Palestine border. It served as the camping area of the Desert Mounted Corps in 1917.

Gaza - 4 - The major southern coastal city of Plaestine where three major battles took place in 1917. It became a hub for Allied supply receipt and distribution.

Haifa - 5 - A coastal city in northern Palestine with a substantial Jewish population [1918]

Kantara - 6 - The largest Allied supply depot in Egypt during the war.

Moascar - 7 - An Egyptian town near the Suez Canal where the Allied training depots were located.

Port Said - 8 - Port at the northern end of the Suez Canal. It contained many Allied Rest Camps

Suez - 9 - Port at the southern end of the Suez Canal. The main embarkation destination for Australian and New Zealand troops


Australian References

1st MD - 1st Military District. This District  incorporated all Queensland, part of Northern New South Wales and Darwin from the Northern Territory.

2nd MD - 2nd Military District. This  District  incorporated most of New South Wales except for the Northern District in the 1st MD, a few towns on the Murray River which are included in the 3rd MD and the Broken Hill region which is included in the 4th MD.

3rd MD - 3rd Military District. This District included all Victoria and some towns along the Murray River that are in New South Wales.

4th MD - 4th Military District. This District included all South Australia and the Broken Hill region in New South Wales.

5th MD - 5th Military District. This District included all Western Australia.

6th MD - 5th Military District. This District included all Tasmania.

Langwarren - Former Victorian military depot near Melbourne converted into a VD Hospital and detention barracks during the Great War.

Torrens Island - South Australian island north of Port Adelaide used in the Great War to hold alien internees and a detention barracks with VD cases.


Middle East References

2nd Aus Stat Hosp - 2nd Australian Stationary Hospital

4 Tng Reg (e.g.) - 4th Light Horse Brigade Training Regiment

4th F Amb (e.g.) - 4th Light Horse Field Ambulance

9 MVS (e.g.)  - 9th Mobile Vet Section

11 LH Regt (e.g.) - 11th Light Horse Regiment

14 AGH - 14th Australian General Hospital

21 Gen Hosp - 21st General Hospital (British)

31 Gen Hosp - 31st General Hospital (British)

24 Stat Hosp - 24th Stationary Hospital (British)

36 Stat Hosp - 36th Stationary Hospital (British)

44 Stat Hosp - 44th Stationary Hospital (British)

45 Stat Hosp - 45th Stationary Hospital (British)

47 Stat Hosp - 47th Stationary Hospital (British)

33 CC Stn - 33rd Casualty Clearing Station (British)

66 CC Stn - 66th Casualty Clearing Station (British)

76 CC Stn - 76th Casualty Clearing Station (British)

A & NZ DC & TC - Australian and New Zealand Details Camp and Training Centre, located at Moascar.

Bde HQ - Brigade Headquarters

Bonlac - An isolation hospital for contagious diseases

Con Dept - Convalescent Depot

EEF - Egypt Expeditionary Force

FP Compound - Field Punishment Compound

Isol Compound - Isolation Compound

PSRC - Port Said Rest Camp

R Camp - Rest Camp

Rfts Camp - Reinforcements Camp



12th/3rd (e.g.) - A member of the 12th Reinforcements for the 3rd Battalion.

21 2/12 (e.g.) - 21 years and 2 months of age.

A/Cpl - Acting Corporal.

AAH - Australian Auxiliary Hospital.

AAMC - Australian Army Medical Corps.

AANS - Australian Army Nursing Service.

AASC or ASC - (Australian) Army Service Corps.

AB/Dvr - able bodied driver.

Act. - acting (in a temporary capacity).

ADBD - Australian Divisional Base Depot.

ADH - Australian Dermatological Hospital.

Adm./adm - admitted (usually to hospital).

ADS - advanced dressing station.

Advd. - advised.

AE & MM & BC - Australian Electrical & Mechanical Mining & Boring Company.

AFA - Australian Field Artillery.

AFC - Australian Flying Corps.

AGBD - Australian General Base Depot.

AGH - Australian General Hospital.

AIBD - Australian Infantry Base Depot.

AIF - Australian Imperial Force.

ALR or AL Rwy - Australian Light Railway.

AM - aircraft mechanic.

AMGBD - Australian Machine Gun Base Depot.

AMTS - Australian Mechanical Transport Service.

AN & MEF - Australian Naval & Military Expeditionary Force.

ANZAC - Australian (and) New Zealand Army Corps.

ANZAC Cyc Coy - ANZAC Cyclist Company/Battalion Bn.

ANZAC Mtd Reg - ANZAC Mounted Regiment.

AOC - Army Ordnance Corps.

Arty - Artillery.

ASC - Army Service Corps.

ASH - Australian Stationary Hospital.

Aux. - auxiliary.

AVES - Australian Veterinary Evacuating Station.

AVH - Australian Veterinary Hospital.

AWL - absent without leave.



Bar - second award of same bravery medal e.g. MM and Bar.

Batt - Battalion.

Bde - Brigade.

BEF - British Expeditionary Force (Belgium, France, England).

BGROC - Broad Gauge Railway Operating Company.

Bn - Battalion.

Btn - Battalion.

BW - bullet wound.



Can. - Canadian (usually General Hospital).

Capt. - Captain.

CB - Confined to Barracks, usually a punishment.

CC - confined to camp (as punishment).

CC - convalescent camp.

CCS - Casualty Clearing Station.

CO - Commanding Officer.

Com. Dep. - Command Depot.

Coy - Company.

Cpl - Corporal. The NCO grade above Lance Corporal.

Cps - Corps.

CQMS - Company Quartermaster Sergeant.



DAAG - Deputy Assistant Adjutant General

DAC - Divisional Artillery Column.

DAG - Deputy Adjutant-General 

DCM - Distinguished Conduct Medal.

DCM - Divisional Court Martial.

decd. - deceased.

Den Cps - Dental Corps.

Dis. - discharged (e.g. from hospital or army).

DMC RO 288 - Desert Mounted Corps Routine Order Number 288, 28 April 1918.

Dn (or Div) – Division.

Do (or ") - ditto (same as entry above in record).

DOD - died of disease.

DOW - died of wounds.

DSC - Divisional Supply Column.

Dvr - Driver. Usually the person driving the horse drawn wagons. Drivers were paid 1/- per day above the private or trooper.



EDP - escort duty promotion (temporary).

EDP Cpl - Extra Depot Corporal. A person promoted to a NCO rank over and above the establishment of the unit. .

EEF - Egyptian Expeditionary Force (Egypt, Sinai, Palestine).

Emb. - embarked (boarded ship).

Emb. Roll - embarkation roll.

Engrs - Engineers.

ER Cpl - Extra Regimental Corporal. A person promoted to a NCO rank over and above the establishment of the Regiment. .

ex - from, or out of.



F Amb - Field Ambulance.

FA - Field Ambulance.

FAB - Field Artillery Brigade.

Far - farrier (shoesmith).

FCE - Field Company Engineers.

FGCM - Field General Court Martial.

FP - Field Punishment (e.g. No. 1 or No. 2). For minor offences Field Punishment was implemented to ensure the soldier remained at all time with his unit.

Frac. - fractured (bone as a result of wound).



GCC - German Concentration Camp, Liverpool.

Gen. Hosp. - General Hospital.

GHQ - General Head Quarters.

GSR - General Service Reinforcements.

GSW - Gun Shot Wound, most frequently to describe a shrapnel wound.

GW - gunshot wound.



HMAT - His Majesty's Australian Transport. One of the many ships leased to the Australian government at the outbreak of war.

HQ/Hdgrs/Hgrs - headquarters.

HS - Hospital Ship.

HT - Hired Transport (ship).

HT - see HMAT.

HTMB - Heavy Trench Mortar Battery.



i/c - in charge.

ICC - Imperial Camel Corps.

In The Field - generic term for the 'Front' (usually France or Belgium).

Inf - Infantry.

Infl. - influenza.



KIA - killed in action.



L - left.

L/Cpl or L/Corp - Lance Corporal, the lowest NCO grade.

L/Sgt - Lance Sergeant.

LGROC - Light Gauge Railway Operating Company.

LH - Light Horse.

LH Bde - Light Horse Brigade.

LHFA - Light Horse Field Artillery.

LHR - Light Horse Regiment.

Lieut. or Lt. - Lieutenant.

Lt-Col. - Lieutenant Colonel.

LTMB - Light Trench Mortar Battery.



M Vet-Sect; MVS - Mobile Veterinary Section.

M/I; m/i, M/I; M/in - Marched in. The date when a soldier joined a unit.

M/O; m/o; M/o; M/out - Marched out. The date when a soldier departed from a unit.

MC - Military Cross.

MD - Military District.

MEF - Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (Gallipoli).

MG Bn - Machine Gun Battalion.

MG Coy - Machine Gun Company.

MG Sqn - Machine Gun Squadron.

MIA - missing in action.

MIL. - Military.

MM - Military Medal.

MMP - Mounted Military Police

MO - Medical Officer.

MSM - Meritorious Service Medal.

MT/Dvr - motor transport driver.

MTMB - Medium Trench Mortar Battery.

MU - Medically Unfit. This was one of the most common reasons for a soldier's early discharge from the AIF.



NCO - Non Commissioned Officer.

ND - No diagnosis.

NME - non-military employment (leave after Armistice which provided industry placement and training).

NOK - next of kin.

Nom Roll - Nominal Roll.

NONR - Not on Nominal Roll. This occurred when the individual was not recorded on the Embarkation Roll and returned to Australia after October 1919 subsequent to the closing of the Nominal Roll.It also was recorded when a person was engaged in an occupation not deemed to be recorded on the Nominal Roll yet performed service in a theatre of war which required recognition.

NYD - not yet determined or diagnosed.



O/seas, o/s, Oseas - overseas.

OC - Officer Commanding.



Pnrs - Pioneers (Pioneer Battalion).

PO - Petty Officer (Naval Bridging Train only).

Proc. - proceeded.

Pte - Private. The lowest rank in the force.

PUO - pyrexia of unknown origin (usually 'trench fever').



R - right.

RAA - Royal Australian Artillery.

RAE - Royal Australian Engineers.

RANBT - Royal Australian Naval Bridging Team.

RAP - regimental aid post.

Re or re - about, regarding, in relation to.

Reg. - Regiment.

Regt - Regiment.

REIN. - Reinforcements.

Reinf. - Reinforcements.

retg. - returning (e.g. to Australia).

RFA - Royal Field Artillery.

RMO - Regimental Medical Officer.

RMT Unit - Remount Unit.

RSD - Railhead Supply Detachment.

RSM - Regimental Sergeant Major.



S/Smith - shoeing smith (farrier).

SAN Sect - Sanitation Section.

SB - Siege Battery.

Sect. - Section.

Sgt - Sergeant. The NCO grade above Corporal. .

Sig - Signals.

Sig. Tp - Signals Troop.

SIW - self-inflicted wound.

Sqn - Squadron.

STS - Sea Transport Staff.

Sty. Hosp. - Stationary Hospital.

SW - shrapnel wound.



Temp. - Temporary (promotion).

Tfd. - transferred.

TOS - Taken on Strength. This was the process of adding a person to the ration strength of a unit.

Tp - Troop (Light Horse).

Tpr - Trooper. In early 1915, the AIF ordered that all members of the Australian Light Horse who were at the rank of Private were to be thenceforth called "Trooper".

Trans. - transferred.



V.D. - Volunteer Decoration.

Vacc. - vaccination.

VC - Victoria Cross.

VD - venereal disease.

Vet Sect - Veterinary Section.

vice – replacing; In the place of . usually a name follows.

VO Cpl - Voyage Only Corporal.



Whr - wheeler (a wheelwright).

WOAS – When or while on active service.


Further Reading:

The Light Horse

Australian Light Horse Militia

Militia 1899 - 1920

Battles where Australians fought, 1899-1920


Citation: Light Horse, B103, Casualty Form - Active Service, Index to Common Terms

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Monday, 23 August 2010 9:48 AM EADT
The Volunteer Movement in Western Australia, Organization and Training
Topic: Militia - LHW - WA

Western Australian Militia

Organization and Training


The following is an extract from the book written in 1962 by George F. Wieck called The Volunteer Movement in Western Australia 1861-1903, pp. 75 - 77:

Organization and Training

Training in the very early days was restricted to handling of weapons, rifle shooting, and parade ground movements, little attempt being made to teach tactics or field exercises. Facilities were lacking and funds were not available to purchase them. At the end of the first decade there was a Volunteer Force but its value as a fighting force was low.

The first serious attempt to improve matters must be credited to Lieutenant Colonel RA Harvest, R.A., Inspector of Volunteers, who in 1874 grouped the Perth, Fremantle, and Guildford corps for training purposes, under his own command, in a body known as the 1st Battalion W.A. Volunteers. This expedient, which prevailed with little variation until 1899, permitted training to be carried out at a much higher level, field days becoming a popular and valuable item on the training programme.

An important feature was the raising of artillery corps at Perth and Fremantle. From 1872 all field exercises provided for artillery co-operation with infantry. The Artillery corps were called upon to fire salutes on the amazingly numerous occasions when the Governor attended functions. Much of the military value of these activities lay in the amount of "brushing-up" personnel had to undergo prior to each outing. The amount of training greatly exceeded that shown on parade programmes.

The next step was taken by Lieutenant Colonel EF Angelo, Inspector of Volunteers, who organized and commanded the first Camp of Continuous Training to be held in the Colony. This Camp was held during Easter 1884 at Bullen's Grounds, Albion, attendance totalling 355. On the Easter Monday a sham fight took place. A water colour executed by Lieutenant Colonel Angelo illustrating various incidents is filed in the public archives. A small Camp was held at Geraldton in the same year.

The Albion Camp proved most successful but there was one serious blemish. There was a grave shortage of greatcoats and various essential items of camp equipment, of which no official stocks were held. Steps were taken to acquire the necessary stocks but four years passed before another camp could be held. The next Camp was held at Greenmount in 1888, and another at Guildford in 1889 -at neither of these were there adverse comments regarding equipment. From that time Camps were held more frequently but not necessarily annually, finance as usual being the deciding factor. In a year when no Camp was held it was usual to hold a Field Day on the Easter Monday and as the years passed this form of training tended to become extensive and practical.

It is worthy of note that in 1889 the Guildford Volunteer Rifles at its own expense held a voluntary Camp at Albany.

The Adolescent or Growing-up period was marked by considerable progress in tactical and operational knowledge. However, knowledge of corps administration and maintenance was of a rudimentary nature. Corrective action was taken in 1896 when local districts were created to afford experience to senior officers as Commanders, viz. –

Perth (Major EW Haynes),

Fremantle (H/Major J. W. Hope),

Guildford (Major S. Gardiner) and

Geraldton (Major R. H. Cowan).

On July 1, 1899, the organization known since 1874 as the First Battalion W.A. Volunteers, became the 1st Infantry Regiment under the Command of an officer who was given full operational and administrative control. Not until then had it been possible for the Volunteers to view training for war in its true perspective. It had taken 37 years to reach this goal.

The successful formation of the W.A. Infantry Brigade in 1900 indicates that the 1st Infantry Regiment was intended to act as a model for the benefit of new formations then contemplated. Military leaders in Western Australia were prone to overestimate the recruit potential of the Colony and in raising five battalions would appear to have repeated former errors. When the early enthusiasm had waned some of the Battalions would have had to fight hard for bare existence.

In 1889, Major General Edwards, G.B., recommended that the Defence Force be made up of Militia (partially paid) corps, with the support of Volunteers at Perth and Fremantle-two Battalions of Infantry of four Companies each, one battery of Field Artillery, and one Battery of Garrison Artillery. This recommendation may have led to the adoption of the Defence Act 1893, which provided for Militia Forces who could be called out for service anywhere within Australia. The first Militia corps in Western Australia, the 11th Infantry Regiment, was converted to that status on 1 January 1905.


Previous:  Finance 

Next: Uniforms and Badges 


Further Reading:

Western Australian Militia, Light Horse

Western Australian Militia, Infantry


Citation: The Volunteer Movement in Western Australia, Organization and Training

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Friday, 4 September 2009 6:51 PM EADT
Friday, 26 June 2009
South Australian Militia - 1861, Reedbeds Cavalry and Captain John Haimes
Topic: Militia - LHS - SA

South Australian Militia - 1861

Reedbeds Cavalry and Captain John Haimes


The South Australian Advertiser, Friday, 5 April 1861, p. 3.


The artilce is transcribed below:



On Thursday evening last, the 11th of April, the officers and troopers of the Reedbeds Cavalry invited their Captain, John Haimes, Esq., who leaves for England in a few days, to an entertainment at the New Globe Inn, Mile end, as the most suitable method to convey to that gentleman the expression of their esteem prior to his leaving for England. In noticing this entertainment, we may mention that Mr Haimes has never been in England, having been born in one of the neighbouring colonies, and many years ago in the days of his youth came to South Australia, at once joined the then small but noble little band of heroes who in those days spent their time, their money, and the enthusiastic energies exploring and opening tracts through the bush of Australia. In fact he is a genuine specimen of those ''cross country" lads whose perseverance and pluck have made the operation of settling in Australia, a mere "gentleman's walk" to what it was in those days.

The dinner got up by Host John Cave was well worthy the occasion; the tables to use a very common expression, literally "groaned" under the good things which graced them - poultry, pigs, &.c were there in "galore" and most superbly cooked. The vegetables and fruit were also supplied to repletion. One bunch of grapes we had the curiosity to ascertain the weight of, and found it to weigh 9½ lbs., and there were other lesser giants of the tribe. That now rare vegetable, cabbage, was also there in abundance and in prime and sweet condition, which was a surprise to the company how Cave got them there All were certain they were brought from a long distance, and the only conjecture how Cave got them in the pot fresh was that his messengers must have had feathers on their heels, like the herald "Mercury", to bring them in so fresh and young. The dinner was presided over by Lieutenant Grey, supported on the right by Captain Haimes, and on his left by Hurtle Fisher, Esq., late Lieutenant of the troop, and the vice chair occupied by Sergeant Major Anderson, supported on his right by Sergeant Harrold, and on his left by Veterinary Surgeon Chalwin.

The usual loyal toasts were proposed from the Chair and responded to with true military ardour. After which "The Army and Navy" were proposed and responded to by the Instructor to the troop, Mr Ferguson. Then followed the toast of the evening, "The Health of Captain Haimes," which was proposed by the Chairman, who in doing so reminded the troop of the extreme and devoted interest he had manifested while at the head of the troop, and gave expression to the regret which they all felt at Captain Haimes leaving them, and he was sure the same regret was felt by Captain Haimes himself, that a necessity had arisen to call him away, from them; but there was one consolation, he said, to know that as Captain Haimes was going to England, a country which he had never seen, he would met with scenes of happiness. Indeed he envied Captain Haimes that he could visit England a pleasure which he himself could not hope to enjoy, but he hoped Captain Haimes in his visit to England would meet with happiness that he would have a prosperous voyage, and that he would shortly return amongst them, and see there numbers augmented and the troop in a perfect state of efficiency.

Captain Haimes, in returning thanks, addressed the company as the officers and troopers of the Reedbeds Cavalry, and also, which he thought he was entitled to do as brother soldiers. He said he felt proud at the manner in which his health had been drunk He hoped to be excused from making a long speech, as it was not his habit to indulge in such amusement, but assured them of the great pleasure he had always experienced in being connected with the troop whose interests he would further as far as he could, with heart and soul. He informed the troop that he had sent in his resignation as captain because he thought it was his duty to do so, as he should be away in England perhaps l8 months, and for the preservation of the efficiency of the troop it would necessary for them to appoint an officer who could constantly attend to his duties. He assured the company that his interest was enduring, and that when he returned from England he should enter the troop if it was as a private trooper. He added that when he got to England he should look out for some present for the company and send it to them, if they would accept it, to be shot for, as an inducement to the members not to relax in their efforts to be efficient; but he would strongly urge upon them the necessity of getting thoroughly equipped and to get tho carbines which had been promised them from the Government. He advised the, to make constant and continuous applications to the government for their carbines, as he was sure, without it, they would not get them.

"The Health of Hurtle Fisher Esq, late Lieutenant to the Troop, was then proposed, which that gentleman acknowledged and added that, in imitation of Captain Haimes, he intended, when he got to England to select something to present to the troop, if they would accept it, and to be given to the member who is most efficient in drill, and, also, if they would accept it, he would send them a "wooden spoon" to be presented to the worst shot in the troop. (Roars of laughter and tremendous cheers followed this promise.)

"The Health of the Chairman" was then drunk and responded to, shortly after which the meeting broke up, finishing a most harmonious and convivial evening.


Commentary on the Article

The importance of this story lies in the fact that it goes into great detail about the structure of the Reedbeds Volunteer Cavalry, the first mounted formation in South Australia which at the time of this article, maintained a Nominal Roll of 33 men all ranks.

An issue flagged by Captain Haimes in his speech related to the promise by the Government to provide carbines for the unit. While the men provided their own horse and saddle while paying for their uniform as Volunteers, the South Australian Government had promised to arm the men. Years of attempting to get arms from the Government had met with deaf ears. Indeed, it became quite a scandal in South Australia that the Cavalry had no arms. In the end, the press advocated this cause in the community and eventually the men were provided with carbines.


Further Reading:

South Australian Militia - Light Horse


Citation: South Australian Militia - 1861, Reedbeds Cavalry and Captain John Haimes

Posted by Project Leader at 10:59 AM EADT
Updated: Friday, 26 June 2009 11:27 AM EADT
AIF & MEF & EEF, Glossary of Australian Graduation Staff List and Honours
Topic: AIF & MEF & EEF


Glossary of Australian Graduation Staff List and Honours


Each year, a listing of Australian officers was produced. This list detailed such vital information as their commission date, appointments and qualifications. In addition it contained any honours granted during their service. After August 1914, a similar book was produced for the AIF. This was updated every three months until the conclusion of the war and the disbandment of the units. Below is a glossary detailing the nature of the certificates and honours. For people not familiar with British honours, this is essential to understanding the letters attached to the names of various officers.


a. - Passed in Signalling, Aldershot.
(a) - Submarine Mining, Officer's Course, Royal Engineers.
(b) - Electric Lighting, Officer's Course, Royal Engineers.
c. - Passed in Field Engineering, Chatham.
(c) - Brennan Torpedo Course, Royal Engineers.
C. - Passed in Military Topography, Chatham.
C.A. - Central Administration.
Ch. Inst. - Chief Instructor, School of Gunnery.
(d) - Instructors' Certificate (Imperial) Cavalry Pioneer Duties.
f. - Firemaster's Certificate, Woolwich, &c.
F. - Honour's Certificate, Firemaster's Course, Woolwich, &c.
g. - Obtained a Certificate in the Long Course of Gunnery or Gunnery Staff Course, School of Gunnery, Shoeburyness.
H. - Passed Hythe School of Musketry.
i.l.s. - Certificate as Inspector of Laboratory Stores.
M. - Militia.
o. - Passed Ordnance Course, Ordnance College, England.
P. - Permanent.
P.C. - Privy Councillor.
p.f. - Qualified in Position Finding.
P.M. - Graduated at the Staff Colleges, Camberley, England; or Quetta, India.
s. - Passed Course in testing Small Arm Ammunition.
V. - Volunteer.
K.G. - Knight of the Garter.
K.P. - Knight of St. Patrick.
K.T. - Knight of the Thistle.
G.C.B. - Knight Grand Cross of the Bath.
K.C.B. - Knight Commander of the Bath.
C.B. - Companion of the Bath.
G.C.M.G. - Knight Grand Cross of St. Michael and St. George.
K.C.M.G. - Knight Commander St. Michael and St. George.
C.M.G. - Companion of St. Michael and St. George.
G.C.I.E. - Knight Grand Commander of the Indian Empire.
G.C.S.I. - Knight Grand Commander of the Star of India.
G.C.V.O. - Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order.
C. V.O. - Commander of the Royal Victorian Order.
M.V.O. - Member of the Royal Victorian Order.
D.S.O. - Companion of the Distinguished Service Order.
I.S.O. - Imperial Service Order.
O.M. - Member of the Order of Merit.
(R) - Reward for Distinguished or Meritorious Services.
V.C. - Victoria Cross.
V.D. - Volunteer Forces Decoration (Colonial Auxiliary Forced)


Further Reading:

B103, Index to Common Terms

Battles where Australians Fought

AIF, MEF and the EEF


Citation: AIF & MEF & EEF, Glossary of Australian Graduation Staff List and Honours

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Friday, 10 July 2009 6:10 PM EADT
The Volunteer Movement in Western Australia, Uniforms and Badges
Topic: Militia - LHW - WA

Western Australian Militia

Uniforms and Badges


The following is an extract from the book written in 1962 by George F. Wieck called The Volunteer Movement in Western Australia 1861-1903, pp. 78 - 82:

Uniforms and Badges

Detailed descriptions of uniform adopted by the early Volunteer Infantry corps do not exist therefore the descriptions given herein are incomplete and possibly inexact in some cases. The best has been done with the information available.

Records indicate that about the year 189 the tunic worn by British Infantry was changed to a pattern described by the press of the day as long, ill-fitting, loose and slovenly. Presumably that was the pattern adopted by the Perth and Fremantle Volunteer Rifles in 1862, for the Illustrated London News in 1864 reproduced a sketch drawn by Captain E. Henderson, R.E., depicting these two corps parading in front of Government House, Perth, on a ceremonial occasion, wearing long scarlet tunics, white duck (or canvas) trousers, and shakoes. There is ground for the belief that the Perth facings were blue and Fremantle's green.

The Pinjarrah and Wellington mounted corps adopted a uniform stated to be a replica of that of the 6th Dragoon Guards (with white cords instead of yellow), i.e. scarlet tunic, white doe-skin pantaloons, white helmet with spike, and over-boots. A brief reference to the Union Troop suggests its uniform was of Hussar type.

The W.A. Troop of Horse Artillery appears to have worn a uniform which was for all practical purposes a replica of that of the British Horse Artillery. The Naval Artillery Volunteers carried on Naval tradition.

In 1872 the newly formed Perth and Fremantle infantry adopted in each case, the uniform worn by its predecessor.

New Corps were formed but the first inkling of uniform and details is gained from a ‘water-colour' executed by Lieutenant Colonel E. F. Angelo, Military Commandant at the Albion camp in 1884 which depicts the whole of the Infantry Volunteers (excepting the Geraldton Corps) on a ceremonial parade wearing scarlet tunic, blue trousers and white helmet. It is not known when helmets were officially adopted but there exists a photograph taken in 1878 of soldiers some wearing white helmets and others blue or dark green.

Dress Regulations for Volunteers were promulgated in 1888 (Government Gazette. No. 55) prescribing what should be worn by Officers of Artillery and Infantry (there was no Cavalry at that time). British Army patterns were closely followed, the artillery volunteers copying the Royal Artillery and the infantry adopting the normal scarlet tunic (now shortened), blue trousers with scarlet seam (plus silver braid for ceremonial occasions) and helmet. Infantry could choose a helmet of either dark green British Army pattern or one of the white Mediterranean type; for facing colours they could choose from blue, green, white or yellow. Perth Rifle Volunteers chose blue for facings, all others it is understood originally adopted green; at a later date three corps at least, i.e. Perth, Albany and Bunbury, changed to white.

The 1888 Regulations also authorised blue undress uniform, khaki being substituted by the end of the century.

The year 1900 saw several major divergences.

The West Australian Mounted Infantry adopted khaki tunic, light coloured breeches, slouch hat (turned up on right side) and ‘concertina' top-boots. The Metropolitan Civil Service Battalion favoured grey tunic and trousers, black helmet and black facings. The Goldfields Battalion of Infantry adopted a workmanlike khaki with puttees and slouch hat. The West Australian Highlanders proudly wore a replica of the uniform of the 79th Cameron Highlanders, including the Erract tartan.

As in the case of uniform, there is no recorded description of the design and date of adoption of the various corps badges. Several helmet plates dating chiefly from the `eighties' have been located; comparison of these suggests the adoption of two basic designs, one for artillery, the other for infantry. The following sketches are copies from the plates of the Perth Artillery Volunteers and Perth Rifle Volunteers respectively. The basic designs were amended to meet the requirements of each corps as follows:

Perth Artillery Volunteers Badge


Artillery (1): The words Perth, Fremantle, or Albany being inserted according to requirements. The Albany Corps' plate included a fortress type gun on a barbette mounting in lieu of the field gun.

Fremantle Rifle Volunteers Badge


Infantry (2) : The Fremantle Rifle Volunteers plate had a circular strap almost entirely enclosed by a laurel wreath, super-imposed upon the basic star and crown; the area within the strap carried the conventional bugle with ribbons attached and in raised letters on the strap was the Corps title – “Fremantle Rifle Volunteers: Western Australia.”

The Guildford Rifle Volunteers plate had the laurel wreath and a raised "circle" instead of a strap, on the circle in raised letters was the motto "Honi Soit Qui Mal y Pense" and within the circle, in script the Corps initials G.R.V.

The Geraldton Rifle Volunteers plate carried the Corps title on the raised circle with bugle and ribbons within as in the case of Fremantle. It is believed that Albany, York and Bunbury also adopted this style.

There were two unconventional types.

The Civil Service Rifle Volunteer Corps adopted a black oxidized Maltese Cross with an interior raised circle carrying the Corps title. Within the circle on a solid background was a representation in white metal of the crest of the Prince of Wales.

The Goldfields Infantry Regiment's plate was a white metal "Rising Sun" surmounted by a St. Edmund's Crown. In the centre on a solid ground, was an enamelled black swan and on a 3-section (2 over 1) scroll below in raised letters the corps title appeared.


Previous:  Organization and Training

Next: Western Australian Militia, Light Horse


Further Reading:

Western Australian Militia, Light Horse

Western Australian Militia, Infantry


Citation: The Volunteer Movement in Western Australia, Uniforms and Badges

Posted by Project Leader at 12:01 AM EADT
Updated: Friday, 4 September 2009 6:49 PM EADT

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